- For an overview, see the vignette -- also available via
`vignette("using-lsmeans", package = "lsmeans")`

- Least-squares means (a.k.a. predicted marginal means) are derived by using a model to make predictions over a regular grid of pridictor combinations (called a
*reference grid*). These predictions may possibly be averaged (typically with equal weights) over one or more of the predictors. Such marginally-averaged predictions are useful for describing the results of fitting a model, particularly in presenting the effects of factors. The**lsmeans**package can easily produce these results, as well as various graphs of them (interaction-style plots and side-by-side intervals). - Estimation and testing of pairwise comparisons of LS means, and several other types of contrasts, are provided. There is also a
`cld`

method for display of grouping symbols. - Two-way support of the
`glht`

function in the**multcomp**package. - For models where continuous predictors interact with factors, the package's
`lstrends`

function works in terms of a reference grid of predicted slopes of trend lines for each factor combination. - Incorporates support for many types of models, including those in
**stats**package (`lm`

,`glm`

,`aov`

,`aovlist`

), linear and genearalized linear mixed models (e.g.,**nlme**,**lme4**,**afex**), ordinal-response models (e.g.,**ordinal**,**MASS**), survival analysis (e.g.,**survival**,**coxme**), generalized estimating equations (**gee**,**geepack**), and others. See`help("models"", package="lsmeans")`

- Various Bayesian models (
**carBayes**,**MCMCglmm**,**MCMCpack**) are supported by way of creating a posterior sample of least-squares means or contrasts thereof, which may then be examined using tools such as in the**coda**package. - Package developers may provide
**lsmeans**support for their models by providing`recover.data`

and`lsm.basis`

methods. See`vignette("extending", package = "lsmeans")`

To install latest version from CRAN, run

`install.packages("lsmeans")`

Release notes for the latest CRAN version are found at https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lsmeans/NEWS -- or do

`news(package = "lsmeans")`

for notes on the version you have installed.To install the latest development version from Github, have the newest

**devtools**package installed, then run`devtools::install_github("rvlenth/lsmeans", dependencies = TRUE)`

For latest release notes on this development version, see the NEWS file