This package now includes ICD-10 support, with some sample ICD-10-CM codes, and comorbidity mappings from ICD-10 codes to comorbidities. The sample data are from http://www.ustur.wsu.edu/database/ where de-identified diagnoses are given for a few hundred pathology cases relating to uranium exposure.

The sample data is in the ‘long’ format, i.e. multiple rows per case

```
uranium_pathology[1:10, ]
#> case icd10
#> 1 1 F17.9
#> 2 1 I21.9
#> 3 1 K75.9
#> 4 1 R55
#> 5 2 I25.1
#> 6 2 I35.8
#> 7 2 I63.9
#> 8 2 I64
#> 9 2 J43.9
#> 10 2 J84.1
```

We can convert the date from long to wide format easily. This is done quickly in C++, and gives reliable output with factors). It also has other features which make it work well with other functions in this package. However, you may be happier using dplyr and friends for this manipulation.

```
uranium_pathology %>% icd_long_to_wide %>% head
#> [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [,7] [,8]
#> 1 "F17.9" "I21.9" "K75.9" "R55" NA NA NA NA
#> 2 "I25.1" "I35.8" "I63.9" "I64" "J43.9" "J84.1" "K57.9" "N39.0"
#> 3 "I21.9" "I25.1" NA NA NA NA NA NA
#> 4 "T14.1" "X74" NA NA NA NA NA NA
#> 5 "C34.9" "C77.1" "C77.2" "C78.0" "C78.7" "C79.7" "I51.7" "K57.9"
#> 6 "A16.9" "I12.9" "I21.9" "I25.1" "I25.9" "I70.0" "J45.9" "N26"
```

Now map these diagnoses to disease groups as defined by Quan et al:

```
quan_comorbidities <- icd_comorbid(uranium_pathology, icd10_map_quan_elix)
# see the first few rows and columns:
quan_comorbidities[1:6, 3:10]
#> Valvular PHTN PVD HTN HTNcx Paralysis NeuroOther Pulmonary
#> 1 FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
#> 2 TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE
#> 3 FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
#> 4 FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
#> 5 FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE
#> 6 FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE
```

The ICD-10-CM mappings are recorded a bit differently from the ICD-9-CM mappings in this package. The ICD-9 mappings included all possible permutations of child codes. Since ICD-10 codes contain letters, and are seven characters long, this became impractical. Therefore, the current mappings include only codes for the most recent update of ICD-10-CM. The code which assigns comorbidities for ICD-10 therefore doesn’t rely on all the possible codes being listed in the mappings, so it will (more slowly) search for each possible parent of the given code, up to the three digit ‘major’ (e.g. if Cholera was in the comorbidity mapping, then A0034212647 would eventually match A00)

```
# create trivial comorbidity map:
cholera_typhoid_map <- list(cholera = "A00", typhoid = "A01")
patients <- data.frame(patient = c("0001", "0001", "0002"), code = c("A001234567", "A01", "A019"))
icd_comorbid(patients , map = cholera_typhoid_map)
#> cholera typhoid
#> 0001 TRUE TRUE
#> 0002 FALSE TRUE
```

Here are the codes for hypertension with complications from Quan et al. Note that the vector has class `icd10`

and has the attribute `icd_short_diag`

indicating there are no decimal point delimiters in the codes.

```
icd10_map_quan_elix$HTNcx
#> [1] "I11" "I110" "I119" "I12" "I120" "I129" "I13" "I130"
#> [9] "I131" "I1310" "I1311" "I132" "I15" "I150" "I151" "I152"
#> [17] "I158" "I159"
#> attr(,"icd_short_diag")
#> [1] TRUE
#> attr(,"class")
#> [1] "icd10" "character"
```

For more information on working with ICD-10 codes, see the introduction vignette, and function examples. E.g.

```
?icd_comorbid
?icd_explain
```