# Modules in R

#### 2017-07-18

Provides modules as an organizational unit for source code. Modules enforce to be more rigorous when defining dependencies and have a local search path. They can be used as a sub unit within packages or in scripts.

## Installation

From CRAN:

install.packages("modules")

From GitHub:

if (require("devtools")) install_github("wahani/modules")

# Introduction

The key idea of this package is to provide a unit of source code which has it’s own scope. The main and most reliable infrastructure for such organizational units in the R ecosystem is a package. Modules can be used as stand alone, ad-hoc substitutes for a package or as a sub-unit within a package.

When modules are defined inside of packages they act as bags of functions (like objects as in object-oriented-programming). Outside of packages modules define entities which only know of the base environment, i.e. within a module the base environment is the only package on the search path. Also they are always represented as a list inside R.

Some core features:

library("modules")
m <- module({
boringFunction <- function() "boring output"
})
m$boringFunction() ## [1] "boring output" Since they are isolated from the .GlobalEnv the following object x can not be found: x <- "hey" m <- module({ someFunction <- function() x }) m$someFunction()
## Error in m$someFunction(): object 'x' not found ## Imports If you rely on exported objects of a package you can refer to them explicitly using ::: m <- module({ functionWithDep <- function(x) stats::median(x) }) m$functionWithDep(1:10)
## [1] 5.5

Or you can use import for attaching single objects or packages and use for attaching or loading a module:

m <- module({

import("stats", "median") # make median from package stats available

functionWithDep <- function(x) median(x)

})
m$functionWithDep(1:10) ## [1] 5.5 m <- module({ import("stats") functionWithDep <- function(x) median(x) }) m$functionWithDep(1:10)
## [1] 5.5

## Exports

It may also be of interest to control which objects are visible for the client. You can do that with the export function. Note that export accepts regular expressions which are indicated by a leading ‘^’.

m <- module({

export("fun")

fun <- identity # public
privateFunction <- identity

# .named are always private
.privateFunction <- identity

})

names(m)
## [1] "fun"

## Example: Modules as Parallel Process

One example where you may want to have more control of the enclosing environment of a function is when you parallelize your code. First consider the case when a naive implementation fails.

library("parallel")
dependency <- identity
fun <- function(x) dependency(x)

cl <- makeCluster(2)
clusterMap(cl, fun, 1:2)
## Error in checkForRemoteErrors(val): 2 nodes produced errors; first error: could not find function "dependency"
stopCluster(cl)

To make the function fun self contained we can define it in a module.

m <- module({
dependency <- identity
fun <- function(x) dependency(x)
})

cl <- makeCluster(2)
clusterMap(cl, m$fun, 1:2) ## [[1]] ## [1] 1 ## ## [[2]] ## [1] 2 stopCluster(cl) Note that the parallel computing facilities in R always provide a way to handle such situations. Here it is just a matter of organization if you believe the function itself should handle its dependencies or the parallel interface. # Scripts as modules You can load scripts as modules when you refer to a file (or directory) in a call to use. Inside such a script you can use import and use in the same way you typically use library. A major difference is, that library will not only attach the stated package but also all packages in the depends field of that package. This is something you have to do manually (explicitly) with import. Consider the following example where we create a module in a temporary file with its dependencies. code <- " import('stats', 'median') functionWithDep <- function(x) median(x) " fileName <- tempfile(fileext = ".R") writeLines(code, fileName) Then we can load such a module into this session by the following: m <- use(fileName) m$functionWithDep(1:2)
## [1] 1.5

# Nested Modules

You can also write nested modules, which means you define modules inside modules. In this case dependencies of the top level module are accessible to its children:

m <- module({

import("stats", "median")
import("modules", "module")

anotherModule <- module({
fun <- function(x) median(x)
})

})

m$anotherModule$fun(1:2)
## [1] 1.5

# Parameterized Modules

Sometimes it can be useful to pass arguments to a module. If you have a background in object oriented programming you may find this natural. From a functional perspective we define parameters shared by a list of closures. This is achieved by making the enclosing environment of the module available to the module itself. Note that inside a package this would be the default behaviour.

m <- function(param) {
module(topEncl = environment(), {
fun <- function() param
})
}

m(1)$fun() ## [1] 1 # Documentation If you want proper documentation for your functions or modules you really want a package. However, there are some simple things you can do for ad-hoc documentation of modules which is to use comments: module({ fun <- function(x) { ## A function for illustrating documentation ## x (numeric) x } }) ## fun: ## function(x) ## ## A function for illustrating documentation ## ## x (numeric) # Modules in Packages You can use modules inside packages in the same way as illustrated above. When a module is defined inside a R-package its search path connects to the packages namespace. So it sees all objects within the package and has access to all its dependencies. You can always change this by specifying the argument topEncl when calling module. Do not use import inside this setting but instead rely on the package to handle your dependencies. Attaching other modules using use and expose can make sense but is a matter of preference. You should definitely not rely on modules in files and load them with use! # Modules with Object Orientation ## S3 S3 method dispatch can be problematic because of the special search mechanism of UseMethod. What will work, however, is wrapping the generic function in a wrapper function. m <- module({ .generic <- function(x) UseMethod("generic") generic.numeric <- function(x) cat("method for x ~ numeric") generic <- function(x) .generic(x) }) m$generic(1)
## method for x ~ numeric

## S4

By default the set functions of the methods package have side effects in the top level environment. So you would have to set the appropriate environment for the argument ‘where’. However if you really have the need for S4 generics, classes and methods you should consider writing a package instead; or if you are already in a package define them in the scope of the package.

# Modules and Coupling

Best is to only use :: and use with attach = FALSE to be explicit with your dependencies. However, there are some other options you have, which will result in stronger forms of coupling between modules.

## Modules to Model Mutable State

This is in itself abstract but in principle you can not only put functions in your bag (module) but any R-object. This transforms into something which is probably associated with object-orientation. You can like this or not, here I simply use it to illustrate the strongest form of coupling between two modules I can come up with.

In the following I define a module to encapsulate some value and have a get and set method for it:

mutableModule <- module({
.num <- NULL
get <- function() .num
set <- function(val) .num <<- val
})
mutableModule$get() ## NULL mutableModule$set(2)

## Coupling Between Modules

In the next module we can use mutableModule and rebuild the interface to .num.

complectModule <- module({
use(.GlobalEnv$mutableModule, attach = TRUE) getNum <- function() get() set(3) }) mutableModule$get()
## [1] 2
complectModule$getNum() ## [1] 3 Depending on your expectations with respect to the above code it comes at a surprise that we can get and set that value from an attached module; Furthermore it is not changed in mutableModule. This is because use will trigger a re-initialization of any module you plug in. You can override this behaviour: complectModule <- module({ use(.GlobalEnv$mutableModule, attach = TRUE, reInit = FALSE)
getNum <- function() get()
set(3)
})
mutableModule$get() ## [1] 3 complectModule$getNum()
## [1] 3

This is not all we can do. Also we can use expose. This function will take everything in a module and expose it to the environment from which it is called.

complectModule <- module({
expose(.GlobalEnv$mutableModule, reInit = TRUE) set(4) }) mutableModule$get()
## [1] 3
complectModule$get() ## [1] 4 And of course we can do this with reInit = FALSE should this be desirable. In this case both modules are essentially a copy of a reference. complectModule <- module({ expose(.GlobalEnv$mutableModule, reInit = FALSE)
set(1)
})
mutableModule$get() ## [1] 1 complectModule$get()
## [1] 1