The following example follows the tutorial presented in Phillips et al. (2017) *FFTrees: A toolbox to create, visualize, and evaluate fast-and-frugal decision trees.* Soon to be published in Judgment and Decision Making.

You can install FFTrees from CRAN using `install.packages()`

(you only need to do this once)

```
# Install the package from CRAN
install.packages("FFTrees")
```

To use the package, you first need to load it into your current R session. You can load the package using `library()`

```
# Load the package
library(FFTrees)
```

The package contains several guides (like this one). To open the main guide, run `FFTrees.guide()`

```
# Open the main package guide
FFTrees.guide()
```

In this example, we will create FFTs from a heart disease data set. The training data are in an object called `heart.train`

, and the testing data are in an object called `heart.test`

. For these data, we will predict `diagnosis`

, a binary criterion that indicates whether each patent has or does not have heart disease (i.e., is at high-risk or low-risk).

To create the `FFTrees`

object, we’ll use the function `FFTrees()`

with two main arguments: `formula`

, a formula indicating the binary criterion as a function of one or more predictors to be considered for the tree (the shorthand `formula = diagnosis ~ .`

means to include all predictors), and `data`

, the training data.

```
# Create an FFTrees object
heart.fft <- FFTrees(formula = diagnosis ~ ., # Criterion and (all) predictors
data = heart.train, # Training data
data.test = heart.test, # Testing data
main = "Heart Disease", # General label
decision.labels = c("Low-Risk", "High-Risk")) # Labels for decisions
```

The resulting trees, decisions, and accuracy statistics are now stored in the `FFTrees`

object called `heart.fft`

.

`algorithm`

: There are several different algorithms available to build FFTs, including “ifan” (Phillips et al. 2017), “dfan”(Phillips et al. 2017), “max” (Martignon, Katsikopoulos, and Woike 2008), and “zigzag” (Martignon, Katsikopoulos, and Woike 2008).`max.levels`

: Changes the maximum number of levels allowed in the tree.

The following arguments apply to the “ifan” and “dfan” algorithms only:

`goal.chase`

: The`goal.chase`

argument changes which statistic is maximized during tree construction (for the “ifan” and “dfan” algorithms only). Possible arguments include “acc”, “bacc”, “wacc”, “dprime”, and “cost”.`goal`

: The`goal`

argument changes which statistic is maximized when*selecting*trees after construction (for the “ifan” and “dfan” algorithms only). Possible arguments include “acc”, “bacc”, “wacc”, “dprime”, and “cost”.`my.tree`

: You can define a tree verbally as a sentence using the`my.tree`

argument. See Defining an FFT verbally for examples.

Now we can inspect and summarize the trees. We will start by printing the object to return basic information to the console:

`heart.fft # Print the object`

```
## Heart Disease
## FFT #1 predicts diagnosis using 3 cues: {thal,cp,ca}
##
## [1] If thal = {rd,fd}, predict High-Risk.
## [2] If cp != {a}, predict Low-Risk.
## [3] If ca <= 0, predict Low-Risk, otherwise, predict High-Risk.
##
## train test
## cases :n 150.00 153.00
## speed :mcu 1.74 1.73
## frugality :pci 0.88 0.88
## accuracy :acc 0.80 0.82
## weighted :wacc 0.80 0.82
## sensitivity :sens 0.82 0.88
## specificity :spec 0.79 0.76
##
## pars: algorithm = 'ifan', goal = 'wacc', goal.chase = 'bacc', sens.w = 0.5, max.levels = 4
```

The output tells us several pieces of information:

- The object contains 7 different FFTs. Of those trees, the tree with the highest weighted sensitivity
`wacc`

with a sensitivity weight of 0.5 is selected as the best tree. - The best tree, FFT #1 uses three cues:
`thal`

,`cp`

, and`ca`

. - Several summary statistics for this tree in training and test data are then summarized.

To summaries performance statistics for all trees in the object, use the `summary()`

function:

```
# Pring summary statistics of all trees
summary(heart.fft)
```

```
## $train
## tree n hi mi fa cr sens spec ppv npv far acc bacc wacc
## 1 1 150 54 12 18 66 0.818 0.786 0.750 0.846 0.2143 0.800 0.802 0.802
## 2 2 150 56 10 21 63 0.848 0.750 0.727 0.863 0.2500 0.793 0.799 0.799
## 3 3 150 44 22 7 77 0.667 0.917 0.863 0.778 0.0833 0.807 0.792 0.792
## 4 4 150 59 7 32 52 0.894 0.619 0.648 0.881 0.3810 0.740 0.756 0.756
## 5 5 150 28 38 2 82 0.424 0.976 0.933 0.683 0.0238 0.733 0.700 0.700
## 6 6 150 64 2 52 32 0.970 0.381 0.552 0.941 0.6190 0.640 0.675 0.675
## 7 7 150 21 45 0 84 0.318 1.000 1.000 0.651 0.0000 0.700 0.659 0.659
## bpv dprime cost pci mcu
## 1 0.798 1.70 0.200 0.876 1.74
## 2 0.795 1.70 0.207 0.869 1.84
## 3 0.820 1.81 0.193 0.889 1.56
## 4 0.765 1.55 0.260 0.849 2.12
## 5 0.808 1.79 0.267 0.879 1.70
## 6 0.746 1.57 0.360 0.836 2.30
## 7 0.826 2.05 0.300 0.864 1.90
##
## $test
## tree n hi mi fa cr sens spec ppv npv far acc bacc wacc
## 1 1 153 64 9 19 61 0.877 0.762 0.771 0.871 0.237 0.817 0.820 0.820
## 2 2 153 66 7 24 56 0.904 0.700 0.733 0.889 0.300 0.797 0.802 0.802
## 3 3 153 49 24 8 72 0.671 0.900 0.860 0.750 0.100 0.791 0.786 0.786
## 4 4 153 69 4 35 45 0.945 0.562 0.663 0.918 0.438 0.745 0.754 0.754
## 5 5 153 28 45 0 80 0.384 1.000 1.000 0.640 0.000 0.706 0.692 0.692
## 6 6 153 72 1 56 24 0.986 0.300 0.562 0.960 0.700 0.627 0.643 0.643
## 7 7 153 23 50 0 80 0.315 1.000 1.000 0.615 0.000 0.673 0.658 0.658
## bpv dprime cost pci mcu
## 1 0.821 1.87 0.183 0.877 1.73
## 2 0.811 1.83 0.203 0.868 1.85
## 3 0.805 1.72 0.209 0.884 1.63
## 4 0.791 1.76 0.255 0.861 1.95
## 5 0.820 2.21 0.294 0.873 1.78
## 6 0.761 1.68 0.373 0.849 2.11
## 7 0.808 2.03 0.327 0.859 1.97
```

All statistics can be derived from a 2 x 2 confusion table like the one below. For definitions of all accuracy statistics, look at the accuracy statistic definitions vignette.

To visualize a tree, use `plot()`

:

```
# Plot the best FFT when applied to the test data
plot(heart.fft, # An FFTrees object
data = "test") # Which data to plot? "train" or "test"
```

`tree`

: Which tree in the object should beplotted? To plot a tree other than the best fitting tree (FFT #1), just specify another tree as an integer (e.g.;`plot(heart.fft, tree = 2)`

).`data`

: For which dataset should statistics be shown? Either`data = "train"`

(the default), or`data = "test"`

`stats`

: Should accuracy statistics be shown with the tree? To show only the tree, without any performance statistics, include the argument`stats = FALSE`

```
# Plot only the tree without accuracy statistics
plot(heart.fft,
stats = FALSE)
```

`comp`

: Should statistics from competitive algorithms be shown in the ROC curve? To remove the performance statistics of competitive algorithms (e.g.; regression, random forests), include the argument`comp = FALSE`

`what`

: To show individual cue accuracies in ROC space, include the argument`what = "cues"`

:

```
# Show marginal cue accuracies in ROC space
plot(heart.fft,
what = "cues")
```

An FFTrees object contains many different outputs, to see them all, run `names()`

```
# Show the names of all of the outputs in heart.fft
names(heart.fft)
```

```
## [1] "formula" "data.desc" "cue.accuracies"
## [4] "tree.definitions" "tree.stats" "cost"
## [7] "level.stats" "decision" "levelout"
## [10] "tree.max" "inwords" "auc"
## [13] "params" "comp" "data"
```

Here is a brief description of each of the outputs:

Output | Description |
---|---|

formula | The formula used to generate the object |

data.desc | Descriptions of the original training and test data |

cue.accuracies | Cue thresholds and accuracies |

tree.definitions | Definitions of all trees, including cues, thresholds and exit directions |

tree.stats | Performance statistics for trees |

cost | Cost statistics for each case and tree. |

level.stats | Cumulative performance statistics for all trees. |

decision | Classification decisions |

levelout | The level at which each case is classified |

tree.max | The best performing training tree in the object. |

inwords | A verbal description of the trees. |

auc | Area under the curve statistics |

params | A list of parameters used in building the trees |

comp | Models and statistics for competitive algorithms (e.g.; regression, (non-frugal) decision trees, support vector machines) |

data | The original training and test data |

To predict classifications for a new dataset, use the standard `predict()`

function. For example, here’s how to predict the classifications for data in the `heartdisease`

object (which actually is just a combination of `heart.train`

and `heart.test`

)

```
# Predict classifications for a new dataset
predict(heart.fft,
data = heartdisease)
```

If you want to define a specific FFT and apply that tree to data, you can define it using the `my.tree`

argument.

```
# Create an FFT manuly
my.heart.fft <- FFTrees(formula = diagnosis ~.,
data = heart.train,
data.test = heart.test,
main = "My custom Heart Disease FFT",
my.tree = "If chol > 350, predict True.
If cp != {a}, predict False.
If age <= 35, predict False. Otherwise, predict True")
```

Here is the result (It’s actually not too bad, although the first node is pretty worthless)

`plot(my.heart.fft)`

The `FFForest()`

function conducts a bootstrapped simulation on the training data, thus creating a forest of several FFTs. This can give you insight as to how important different cues are in the dataset

```
# Create an FFForest object (can take a few minutes)
heart.fff <- FFForest(diagnosis ~.,
data = heartdisease,
ntree = 100,
train.p = .5,
cpus = 4)
```

Plotting the result shows cue importance and co-occurrence relationships:

`plot(heart.fff)`

Here, we see that the three cues `cp`

, `thal`

, and `ca`

occur the most often in the forest and thus appear to be the most important three cues in the dataset.

Martignon, Laura, Konstantinos V Katsikopoulos, and Jan K Woike. 2008. “Categorization with Limited Resources: A Family of Simple Heuristics.” *Journal of Mathematical Psychology* 52 (6). Elsevier: 352–61.

Phillips, Nathaniel, Hansjoerg Neth, Wolfgang Gaissmaier, and Jan Woike. 2017. “FFTrees: A Toolbox to Create, Visualise, and Implement Fast-and-Frugal Decision Trees.”