vlad Build Status Coverage Status

An R-package which contains functions to set up risk-adjusted quality control charts in health care.

Main features

Installation

You can install the released version of vlad from CRAN with:

install.packages("vlad")

And the development version from GitHub with:

# install.packages("devtools")
devtools::install_github("wittenberg/vlad")

Example

Load libraries:

library("vlad")
library("spcadjust")
library("dplyr")
library("tidyr")
library("ggplot2")

Subset the dataset cardiacsurgery into Phase I (first two years) and Phase II (five years) and estimate a risk model based on phaseI.

data("cardiacsurgery")
cardiacsurgery <- cardiacsurgery %>% mutate(phase=factor(ifelse(date < 2*365, "I", "II")))
phaseI <- filter(cardiacsurgery, phase == "I")
head(cardiacsurgery)
#>   date time status Parsonnet surgeon phase
#> 1    1   90      0        15       7     I
#> 2    1   90      0         9       3     I
#> 3    2   90      0         2       5     I
#> 4    3   90      0         8       7     I
#> 5    3   90      0         7       1     I
#> 6    3   90      0        40       1     I
coeff <- round(coef(glm(status ~ Parsonnet, data=phaseI, family="binomial")), 3)
print(coeff)
#> (Intercept)   Parsonnet 
#>      -3.618       0.083

Create VLADs for seven surgeons

By using the estimated risk model coefficients coeff, for each pair of Parsonnet score and operation outcome values, the difference between expected and observed outcome is calculated with the function calceo. Thereafter, differences are cummulated to create the VLAD. This is done for all seven surgeons of the cardiacsurgery dataset. Results are saved to the object vlads7.

vlads7 <- lapply(1:7, function(j){
  Si <- filter(cardiacsurgery, surgeon == j)
  EO <- sapply(seq_along(Si$Parsonnet), function(i) calceo(df=Si[i, c(4, 3)], coeff=coeff))
  select(Si, surgeon, phase) %>%  mutate(n=1:length(EO), cEO=cumsum(EO))
}) 

Create Variable life-adjusted Displays for each surgeon from the object vlads7.

vlads7 %>% 
  bind_rows() %>%  
  gather(key="Surgeon", value=value, c(-n, -surgeon, -phase)) %>%
  ggplot(aes(x=n, y=value, colour=phase, group=Surgeon)) +
    geom_hline(yintercept=0, colour="darkgreen", linetype="dashed") +
    geom_line(size = 1.1) + facet_wrap( ~ surgeon, ncol=2, scales="free") +
    labs(x="Patient number n", y="CUSUM E-O") + theme_classic() +
    scale_y_continuous(sec.axis=dup_axis(name=NULL, labels=NULL)) +
    scale_x_continuous(sec.axis=dup_axis(name=NULL, labels=NULL))

Create a VLAD for surgeon 2

S2 <- subset(cardiacsurgery, c(surgeon==2), c("phase", "Parsonnet", "status"))
S2I <- subset(S2, c(phase=="I"))
S2II <- subset(S2, c(phase=="II"))
coeff <- coef(glm(status ~ Parsonnet, data=S2I, family="binomial"))
EO <- sapply(1:nrow(S2), function(i) calceo(df=S2[i, c("Parsonnet", "status")], coeff=coeff))

df1 <- data.frame(cbind(subset(S2, select=c("phase")), n=1:nrow(S2), cEO=cumsum(EO)))
df2 <- gather(df1, "variable", value, c(-n, -phase))

p1 <- ggplot(df2, aes(x=n, y=value, colour=phase)) +
  geom_hline(yintercept=0, linetype="dashed") + geom_line() + geom_point() + 
  labs(x="Patient number", y="CUSUM E-O") + theme_classic()
p1

Compute thresholds of a risk-adjusted CUSUM chart for surgeon 2

Upper and lower control limits of the risk-adjusted CUSUM chart based on log-likelihood ratio statistic can be computed with the function racusum_arl_h_sim. The implemention uses parallel simulation and a multi-stage search procedure.

# set a random number generator for parallel computations
RNGkind("L'Ecuyer-CMRG")
# number of simulation runs
m <- 10^4
# assign cores
nc <- parallel::detectCores()
# verbose calculation 
UCL_sim <- racusum_arl_h_sim(L0=740, df=S2I[, c("Parsonnet", "status")], coeff=coeff, m=m, RA=2, nc=nc,
                             verbose=TRUE)
#> (i)   1   57.7536 
#> (ii)  2   294.0231 
#> (ii)  3   1001.1577 
#> (v)   2.63068176836489    656.7365 
#> (v)   2.71996410226231    729.0806 
#> (v)   2.73344010813922    738.9591 
#> (v)   2.73486007822752    740.8064 
#> (v)   2.73424022012152    739.5062 
#> (v)   2.7344756346214     739.9085 
#> (vi)  2.734999    740.9792
# quite calculation
LCL_sim <- racusum_arl_h_sim(L0=740, df=S2I[, c("Parsonnet", "status")], coeff=coeff, m=m, RA=1/2, 
                             nc=nc, verbose=FALSE)
round(cbind(UCL_sim, LCL_sim), 3)
#>      UCL_sim LCL_sim
#> [1,]   2.735   2.511

Authors

Philipp Wittenberg and Sven Knoth

License

GPL (>= 2)