1. Excel Export

Chris Bailiss

2017-10-02

In This Vignette

Overview

The pivottabler package can export a pivot table to an Excel file. Only Excel 2007 onwards (*.xlsx) files are supported. This export uses the openxlsx package.

This vignette starts with a basic (unformatted) export. Following this are various styled/formatted examples.

Basic Export (no styling)

Exporting a pivot table to an Excel table is reasonably straightforward:

  1. Create a pivot table in R using pivottabler,
  2. Using the openxlsx package, create a new Excel file and add a worksheet (or open an existing worksheet),
  3. Call the writeToExcelWorksheet method on the pivot table.
  4. Using the openxlsx package, save the workbook.
library(pivottabler)
pt <- PivotTable$new()
pt$addData(bhmtrains)
pt$addColumnDataGroups("TrainCategory")
pt$addColumnDataGroups("PowerType")
pt$addRowDataGroups("TOC")
pt$defineCalculation(calculationName="TotalTrains", summariseExpression="n()")
pt$evaluatePivot()

library(openxlsx)
wb <- createWorkbook(creator = Sys.getenv("USERNAME"))
addWorksheet(wb, "Data")
pt$writeToExcelWorksheet(wb=wb, wsName="Data", 
                         topRowNumber=1, leftMostColumnNumber=1, applyStyles=FALSE)
saveWorkbook(wb, file="C:\\test.xlsx", overwrite = TRUE)
Basic Excel Export (unstyled)

Basic Excel Export (unstyled)

Styling and Formatting

The Excel output from the pivottabler package has been written so that, as much as possible, the same styling used for HTML output also works for the Excel output, i.e. most of the styling described in the Styling vignette can also be used when writing a pivot table to an Excel file.

More specifically, the styling described in the Styling vignette uses CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) definitions for styles. The pivottabler package interprets these CSS definitions and maps them to the styling used in Excel/by the openxlsx package.

This means, once a pivot table has been styled as described in the Styling vignette, the pivot table in the Excel workbook can be styled simply by specifying applyStyles=TRUE.

library(pivottabler)
pt <- PivotTable$new()
pt$addData(bhmtrains)
pt$addColumnDataGroups("TrainCategory")
pt$addColumnDataGroups("PowerType")
pt$addRowDataGroups("TOC")
pt$defineCalculation(calculationName="TotalTrains", summariseExpression="n()")
pt$evaluatePivot()

library(openxlsx)
wb <- createWorkbook(creator = Sys.getenv("USERNAME"))
addWorksheet(wb, "Data")
pt$writeToExcelWorksheet(wb=wb, wsName="Data", 
                         topRowNumber=1, leftMostColumnNumber=1, 
                         applyStyles=TRUE, mapStylesFromCSS=TRUE)
saveWorkbook(wb, file="C:\\test.xlsx", overwrite = TRUE)
Using CSS Styling

Using CSS Styling

In general, the CSS mappings described above will simplify outputting to Excel. However, not all CSS definitions can be mapped to Excel. Excel also has some style settings that don’t map to CSS. There may also be occasions where different styling is desired in Excel vs. HTML. To support all of these scenarios, a second set of styling properties are also supported. These all begin with “xl-” and have roughly similar (but not exactly the same) names to their CSS counterparts, e.g. the property corresponding to CSS “font-family” is “xl-font-name”. If both the “xl-…” Excel property and the CSS property are specified, the Excel value is used. If mapStylesFromCSS=FALSE is specified, then the CSS properties are ignored and only the “xl-…” properties are used.

The table at the bottom of this vignette details the full set of CSS and Excel style properties that are supported.

Formatting Values

There are a few different ways for format the values written into the worksheet. These are controlled by the outputValuesAs parameter. The following pivot table will be used to illustrate the different values for this parameter:

library(pivottabler)
library(dplyr)
library(lubridate)

# derive some additional data
trains <- mutate(bhmtrains,
   ArrivalDelta=difftime(ActualArrival, GbttArrival, units="mins"),
   ArrivalDelay=ifelse(ArrivalDelta<0, 0, ArrivalDelta))

# create the pivot table
pt <- PivotTable$new()
pt$addData(trains)
pt$addColumnDataGroups("TrainCategory")
pt$addColumnDataGroups("PowerType")
pt$addRowDataGroups("TOC", totalCaption="All TOCs")
pt$defineCalculation(calculationName="MeanArrivalDelay", caption="Mean Arr. Delay", 
                     summariseExpression="mean(ArrivalDelay, na.rm=TRUE)", format="%.1f")
pt$renderPivot()

Raw Value

Specifying outputValuesAs="rawValue" will output the raw unformatted values. This is also the default if no value is explicitly specified for the outputValuesAs parameter.

library(pivottabler)
library(dplyr)
library(lubridate)

# derive some additional data
trains <- mutate(bhmtrains,
   ArrivalDelta=difftime(ActualArrival, GbttArrival, units="mins"),
   ArrivalDelay=ifelse(ArrivalDelta<0, 0, ArrivalDelta))

# create the pivot table
pt <- PivotTable$new()
pt$addData(trains)
pt$addColumnDataGroups("TrainCategory")
pt$addColumnDataGroups("PowerType")
pt$addRowDataGroups("TOC", totalCaption="All TOCs")
pt$defineCalculation(calculationName="MeanArrivalDelay", caption="Mean Arr. Delay", 
                     summariseExpression="mean(ArrivalDelay, na.rm=TRUE)", format="%.1f")
pt$evaluatePivot()

library(openxlsx)
wb <- createWorkbook(creator = Sys.getenv("USERNAME"))
addWorksheet(wb, "Data")
pt$writeToExcelWorksheet(wb=wb, wsName="Data", 
                         topRowNumber=1, leftMostColumnNumber=1,
                         outputValuesAs="rawValue",
                         applyStyles=TRUE, mapStylesFromCSS=TRUE)
saveWorkbook(wb, file="C:\\test.xlsx", overwrite = TRUE)

Rounding the values as part of the calculation definition is one option that could be used with outputValuesAs="rawValue".

Exporting raw unformatted values

Exporting raw unformatted values

Formatted Values (as text)

Specifying outputValuesAs="formattedValueAsText" will output the formatted values - i.e. the calculation results that have been formatted according to the format parameter in the defineCalculation() function. The formatted values are text however, so when exported to Excel this typically results in a warning in the corner of each cell that the number in the cell has been stored as text:

Exporting formatted values as text

Exporting formatted values as text

Formatted Values (as numbers)

Specifying outputValuesAs="formattedValueAsNumber" will output the formatted values as numbers - i.e. the same values as shown in the screen shot above, but converted back to numerical values (where possible) - so eliminating the warnings shown above:

Exporting formatted values as numbers

Exporting formatted values as numbers

Using Excel to format the values

The outputValuesAs parameter provides a simple way to control value formatting. However, this applies to every cell in the pivot table, so is not a very fine grained control.

Another option is to output the raw unformatted values to Excel and then specify an Excel format string to allow Excel to format the values. The Excel format string is specified in the styling of cells, either as part of the theme (but this leaves little flexibility for different calculations) or more flexibly, by adding format codes to individual cells / groups of cells after the pivot table has been populated. To do this, a new style is applied to each cell, based on an existing style in the theme. In the example below, the new style is based on the existing “Cell” style, but with a value format string applied.

library(pivottabler)
library(dplyr)
library(lubridate)

# derive some additional data
trains <- mutate(bhmtrains,
   ArrivalDelta=difftime(ActualArrival, GbttArrival, units="mins"),
   ArrivalDelay=ifelse(ArrivalDelta<0, 0, ArrivalDelta))

# create the pivot table
pt <- PivotTable$new()
pt$addData(trains)
pt$addColumnDataGroups("TrainCategory")
pt$addColumnDataGroups("PowerType")
pt$addRowDataGroups("TOC", totalCaption="All TOCs")
pt$defineCalculation(calculationName="MeanArrivalDelay", caption="Mean Arr. Delay", 
                     summariseExpression="mean(ArrivalDelay, na.rm=TRUE)", format="%.1f")
pt$evaluatePivot()
# style setting function
setStyle <- function(cell, baseStyleName, declarations) {
  if(is.null(cell$style)) 
    cell$style <- pt$createInlineStyle(baseStyleName=baseStyleName, declarations=declarations)
  else cell$style$setPropertyValues(declarations=declarations)
}
# set the styling on the cells
cells <- pt$findCells(calculationNames="MeanArrivalDelay")
invisible(lapply(cells, setStyle, baseStyleName="Cell", declarations=list("xl-value-format"="##0.0")))

library(openxlsx)
wb <- createWorkbook(creator = Sys.getenv("USERNAME"))
addWorksheet(wb, "Data")
pt$writeToExcelWorksheet(wb=wb, wsName="Data", 
                         topRowNumber=1, leftMostColumnNumber=1,
                         outputValuesAs="rawValue",
                         applyStyles=TRUE, mapStylesFromCSS=TRUE)
saveWorkbook(wb, file="C:\\test.xlsx", overwrite = TRUE)
Exporting raw values with an Excel format string

Exporting raw values with an Excel format string

Column Widths and Row Heights

It is possible to specifying a minimum row height and/or column width as part of the styling. The relevant styling properties are “xl-min-row-height” and “xl-min-column-width”.

Rows/columns are sized to meet all of the minimum sizes specified. E.g. if three cells in the same row have minimum row heights of 40, 45 and 50 specified, the row height will be set to 50.

Performance

Creating Excel files is relatively effort intensive. Outputing pivot tables to Excel files requires more time than creating a HTML representation of a pivot table. In order of increasing time required:

Styling Reference

The following table details the styling properties that are supported.

CSS Property XL Property XL Example Notes
font-family xl-font-name Arial Only the first CSS font is used in Excel.
font-size xl-font-size 12 In Points (4-72). See below for CSS units.
font-weight xl-bold normal or bold XL bold is CSS font-weight >= 600.
font-style xl-italic normal or italic italic and oblique map to italic.
text-decoration xl-underline normal or underline
text-decoration xl-strikethrough normal or strikethrough
background-color xl-fill-color #FF0000 See below for supported CSS colours.
color xl-text-color #00FF00 See below for supported CSS colours.
text-align xl-h-align left or center or right
vertical-align xl-v-align top or middle or bottom
white-space xl-wrap-text normal or wrap
xl-text-rotation 90 0 to 359, or 255 for vertical text.
xl-indent 20 0 to 250.
border xl-border thin black See below for supported CSS border values.
border-left xl-border-left thin black See below for supported CSS border values.
border-right xl-border-right thin black See below for supported CSS border values.
border-top xl-border-top thin black See below for supported CSS border values.
border-bottom xl-border-bottom thin black See below for supported CSS border values.
xl-min-column-width 50 0 to 255.
xl-min-row-height 45 0 to 400.
xl-value-format #,###.00 See notes below for full details.

Notes:

Note that the following CSS properties are NOT supported:

Further Reading

The full set of vignettes is:

  1. Introduction
  2. Data Groups
  3. Calculations
  4. Outputs
  5. Latex Output
  6. Styling
  7. Finding and Formatting
  8. Cell Context
  9. Irregular Layout
  10. Performance
  11. Shiny
  12. Excel Export