R package emmeans: Estimated marginal means

Note: emmeans is a continuation of the package lsmeans. The latter will eventually be retired.


Estimated marginal means (EMMs, previously known as least-squares means in the context of traditional regression models) are derived by using a model to make predictions over a regular grid of predictor combinations (called a reference grid). These predictions may possibly be averaged (typically with equal weights) over one or more of the predictors. Such marginally-averaged predictions are useful for describing the results of fitting a model, particularly in presenting the effects of factors. The emmeans package can easily produce these results, as well as various graphs of them (interaction-style plots and side-by-side intervals).

Model support

Versions and installation

devtools::install_github("rvlenth/emmeans", dependencies = TRUE,
                        build_vignettes = TRUE)

Note: If you are a Windows user, you should also first download and install the latest version of Rtools.

For the latest release notes on this development version, see the NEWS file