TPD is a package that includes different methods, based on the computation of the trait probability densities of populations and species (TPDs), and its extension to communities (TPDc). These methods allow estimating several components of functional diversity and to partition it across scales (within and between populations or species, within and between communities). The collection of methods constitute a unified framework that incorporates the underlying probabilistic nature of trait distributions in a uni- or multivariate trait space. For more information check:

Carmona, C.P. et al. (2016) Traits Without Borders : Integrating Functional Diversity Across Scales. Trends Ecol. Evol. 31, 382–394

Carmona, C.P. et al. (2016) The Density Awakens: A Reply to Blonder. Trends Ecol. Evol. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2016.07.003

Carmona, C.P. et al. (2017) Towards a Common Toolbox for Rarity: A Response to Violle et al. Trends Ecol. Evol. 31, 427–435