# Variable Selection Methods

## All Possible Regression

All subset regression tests all possible subsets of the set of potential independent variables. If there are K potential independent variables (besides the constant), then there are $$2^{k}$$ distinct subsets of them to be tested. For example, if you have 10 candidate independent variables, the number of subsets to be tested is $$2^{10}$$, which is 1024, and if you have 20 candidate variables, the number is $$2^{20}$$, which is more than one million.

model <- lm(mpg ~ disp + hp + wt + qsec, data = mtcars)
ols_step_all_possible(model)
## # A tibble: 15 x 6
##    Index     N Predictors      R-Square Adj. R-Square Mallow's Cp
##  * <int> <int> <chr>                <dbl>           <dbl>         <dbl>
##  1     1     1 wt                   0.753           0.745         12.5
##  2     2     1 disp                 0.718           0.709         18.1
##  3     3     1 hp                   0.602           0.589         37.1
##  4     4     1 qsec                 0.175           0.148        107.
##  5     5     2 hp wt                0.827           0.815          2.37
##  6     6     2 wt qsec              0.826           0.814          2.43
##  7     7     2 disp wt              0.781           0.766          9.88
##  8     8     2 disp hp              0.748           0.731         15.2
##  9     9     2 disp qsec            0.722           0.702         19.6
## 10    10     2 hp qsec              0.637           0.612         33.5
## 11    11     3 hp wt qsec           0.835           0.817          3.06
## 12    12     3 disp hp wt           0.827           0.808          4.36
## 13    13     3 disp wt qsec         0.826           0.808          4.43
## 14    14     3 disp hp qsec         0.754           0.728         16.3
## 15    15     4 disp hp wt qsec      0.835           0.811          5

The plot method shows the panel of fit criteria for all possible regression methods.

model <- lm(mpg ~ disp + hp + wt + qsec, data = mtcars)
k <- ols_step_all_possible(model)
plot(k)

## Best Subset Regression

Select the subset of predictors that do the best at meeting some well-defined objective criterion, such as having the largest R2 value or the smallest MSE, Mallowâ€™s Cp or AIC.

model <- lm(mpg ~ disp + hp + wt + qsec, data = mtcars)
ols_step_best_subset(model)
##    Best Subsets Regression
## ------------------------------
## Model Index    Predictors
## ------------------------------
##      1         wt
##      2         hp wt
##      3         hp wt qsec
##      4         disp hp wt qsec
## ------------------------------
##
##                                                   Subsets Regression Summary
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Model    R-Square    R-Square    R-Square     C(p)        AIC        SBIC        SBC        MSEP      FPE       HSP       APC
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##   1        0.7528      0.7446      0.7087    12.4809    166.0294    74.2916    170.4266    9.8972    9.8572    0.3199    0.2801
##   2        0.8268      0.8148      0.7811     2.3690    156.6523    66.5755    162.5153    7.4314    7.3563    0.2402    0.2091
##   3        0.8348      0.8171       0.782     3.0617    157.1426    67.7238    164.4713    7.6140    7.4756    0.2461    0.2124
##   4        0.8351      0.8107       0.771     5.0000    159.0696    70.0408    167.8640    8.1810    7.9497    0.2644    0.2259
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## AIC: Akaike Information Criteria
##  SBIC: Sawa's Bayesian Information Criteria
##  SBC: Schwarz Bayesian Criteria
##  MSEP: Estimated error of prediction, assuming multivariate normality
##  FPE: Final Prediction Error
##  HSP: Hocking's Sp
##  APC: Amemiya Prediction Criteria

The plot method shows the panel of fit criteria for best subset regression methods.

model <- lm(mpg ~ disp + hp + wt + qsec, data = mtcars)
k <- ols_step_best_subset(model)
plot(k)

## Stepwise Forward Regression

Build regression model from a set of candidate predictor variables by entering predictors based on p values, in a stepwise manner until there is no variable left to enter any more. The model should include all the candidate predictor variables. If details is set to TRUE, each step is displayed.

### Variable Selection

# stepwise forward regression
model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
ols_step_forward_p(model)
## Forward Selection Method
## ---------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1. bcs
## 2. pindex
## 3. enzyme_test
## 4. liver_test
## 5. age
## 6. gender
## 7. alc_mod
## 8. alc_heavy
##
## We are selecting variables based on p value...
##
## Variables Entered:
##
## - liver_test
## - alc_heavy
## - enzyme_test
## - pindex
## - bcs
##
## No more variables to be added.
##
## Final Model Output
## ------------------
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                               Selection Summary
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Step      Entered      R-Square    R-Square     C(p)        AIC         RMSE
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##    1    liver_test       0.4545      0.4440    62.5119    771.8753    296.2992
##    2    alc_heavy        0.5667      0.5498    41.3681    761.4394    266.6484
##    3    enzyme_test      0.6590      0.6385    24.3379    750.5089    238.9145
##    4    pindex           0.7501      0.7297     7.5373    735.7146    206.5835
##    5    bcs              0.7809      0.7581     3.1925    730.6204    195.4544
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

### Plot

model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
k <- ols_step_forward_p(model)
## Forward Selection Method
## ---------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1. bcs
## 2. pindex
## 3. enzyme_test
## 4. liver_test
## 5. age
## 6. gender
## 7. alc_mod
## 8. alc_heavy
##
## We are selecting variables based on p value...
##
## Variables Entered:
##
## - liver_test
## - alc_heavy
## - enzyme_test
## - pindex
## - bcs
##
## No more variables to be added.
##
## Final Model Output
## ------------------
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
plot(k)

### Detailed Output

# stepwise forward regression
model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
ols_step_forward_p(model, details = TRUE)
## Forward Selection Method
## ---------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1. bcs
## 2. pindex
## 3. enzyme_test
## 4. liver_test
## 5. age
## 6. gender
## 7. alc_mod
## 8. alc_heavy
##
## We are selecting variables based on p value...
##
##
## Forward Selection: Step 1
##
## - liver_test
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.674       RMSE                 296.299
## R-Squared               0.455       Coef. Var             42.202
## Adj. R-Squared          0.444       MSE                87793.232
## Pred R-Squared          0.386       MAE                  212.857
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    3804272.477         1    3804272.477    43.332    0.0000
## Residual      4565248.060        52      87793.232
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                     Parameter Estimates
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model       Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t       Sig        lower      upper
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)     15.191       111.869                 0.136    0.893    -209.290    239.671
##  liver_test    250.305        38.025        0.674    6.583    0.000     174.003    326.607
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
## Forward Selection: Step 2
##
## - alc_heavy
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.753       RMSE                 266.648
## R-Squared               0.567       Coef. Var             37.979
## Adj. R-Squared          0.550       MSE                71101.387
## Pred R-Squared          0.487       MAE                  187.393
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    4743349.776         2    2371674.888    33.356    0.0000
## Residual      3626170.761        51      71101.387
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                     Parameter Estimates
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model       Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig        lower      upper
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)     -5.069       100.828                 -0.050    0.960    -207.490    197.352
##  liver_test    234.597        34.491        0.632     6.802    0.000     165.353    303.841
##   alc_heavy    342.183        94.156        0.338     3.634    0.001     153.157    531.208
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
## Forward Selection: Step 3
##
## - enzyme_test
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.812       RMSE                 238.914
## R-Squared               0.659       Coef. Var             34.029
## Adj. R-Squared          0.639       MSE                57080.128
## Pred R-Squared          0.567       MAE                  170.603
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    5515514.136         3    1838504.712    32.209    0.0000
## Residual      2854006.401        50      57080.128
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                      Parameter Estimates
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model        Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig        lower      upper
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -344.559       129.156                 -2.668    0.010    -603.976    -85.141
##  liver_test     183.844        33.845        0.495     5.432    0.000     115.865    251.823
##   alc_heavy     319.662        84.585        0.315     3.779    0.000     149.769    489.555
## enzyme_test       6.263         1.703        0.335     3.678    0.001       2.843      9.683
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
## Forward Selection: Step 4
##
## - pindex
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.866       RMSE                 206.584
## R-Squared               0.750       Coef. Var             29.424
## Adj. R-Squared          0.730       MSE                42676.744
## Pred R-Squared          0.669       MAE                  146.473
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6278360.060         4    1569590.015    36.779    0.0000
## Residual      2091160.477        49      42676.744
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model        Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -789.012       153.372                 -5.144    0.000    -1097.226    -480.799
##  liver_test     125.474        32.358        0.338     3.878    0.000       60.448     190.499
##   alc_heavy     359.875        73.754        0.355     4.879    0.000      211.660     508.089
## enzyme_test       7.548         1.503        0.404     5.020    0.000        4.527      10.569
##      pindex       7.876         1.863        0.335     4.228    0.000        4.133      11.620
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
## Forward Selection: Step 5
##
## - bcs
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
## No more variables to be added.
##
## Variables Entered:
##
## + liver_test
## + alc_heavy
## + enzyme_test
## + pindex
## + bcs
##
##
## Final Model Output
## ------------------
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                               Selection Summary
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Step      Entered      R-Square    R-Square     C(p)        AIC         RMSE
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##    1    liver_test       0.4545      0.4440    62.5119    771.8753    296.2992
##    2    alc_heavy        0.5667      0.5498    41.3681    761.4394    266.6484
##    3    enzyme_test      0.6590      0.6385    24.3379    750.5089    238.9145
##    4    pindex           0.7501      0.7297     7.5373    735.7146    206.5835
##    5    bcs              0.7809      0.7581     3.1925    730.6204    195.4544
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

## Stepwise Backward Regression

Build regression model from a set of candidate predictor variables by removing predictors based on p values, in a stepwise manner until there is no variable left to remove any more. The model should include all the candidate predictor variables. If details is set to TRUE, each step is displayed.

### Variable Selection

# stepwise backward regression
model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
ols_step_backward_p(model)
## Backward Elimination Method
## ---------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1 . bcs
## 2 . pindex
## 3 . enzyme_test
## 4 . liver_test
## 5 . age
## 6 . gender
## 7 . alc_mod
## 8 . alc_heavy
##
## We are eliminating variables based on p value...
##
## Variables Removed:
##
## - alc_mod
## - gender
## - age
##
## No more variables satisfy the condition of p value = 0.3
##
##
## Final Model Output
## ------------------
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##                            Elimination Summary
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Step    Removed     R-Square    R-Square     C(p)       AIC         RMSE
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------
##    1    alc_mod       0.7818      0.7486    7.0141    734.4068    199.2637
##    2    gender        0.7814      0.7535    5.0870    732.4942    197.2921
##    3    age           0.7809      0.7581    3.1925    730.6204    195.4544
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------

### Plot

model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
k <- ols_step_backward_p(model)
## Backward Elimination Method
## ---------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1 . bcs
## 2 . pindex
## 3 . enzyme_test
## 4 . liver_test
## 5 . age
## 6 . gender
## 7 . alc_mod
## 8 . alc_heavy
##
## We are eliminating variables based on p value...
##
## Variables Removed:
##
## - alc_mod
## - gender
## - age
##
## No more variables satisfy the condition of p value = 0.3
##
##
## Final Model Output
## ------------------
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
plot(k)

### Detailed Output

# stepwise backward regression
model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
ols_step_backward_p(model, details = TRUE)
## Backward Elimination Method
## ---------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1 . bcs
## 2 . pindex
## 3 . enzyme_test
## 4 . liver_test
## 5 . age
## 6 . gender
## 7 . alc_mod
## 8 . alc_heavy
##
## We are eliminating variables based on p value...
##
## - alc_mod
##
## Backward Elimination: Step 1
##
##  Variable alc_mod Removed
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 199.264
## R-Squared               0.782       Coef. Var             28.381
## Adj. R-Squared          0.749       MSE                39706.040
## Pred R-Squared          0.678       MAE                  137.053
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6543042.709         7     934720.387    23.541    0.0000
## Residual      1826477.828        46      39706.040
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1145.971       238.536                 -4.804    0.000    -1626.119    -665.822
##         bcs       62.274        24.187        0.251     2.575    0.013       13.589     110.959
##      pindex        8.987         1.850        0.382     4.857    0.000        5.262      12.711
## enzyme_test        9.875         1.720        0.528     5.743    0.000        6.414      13.337
##  liver_test       50.763        44.379        0.137     1.144    0.259      -38.567     140.093
##         age       -0.911         2.599       -0.025    -0.351    0.728       -6.142       4.320
##      gender       15.786        57.840        0.020     0.273    0.786     -100.639     132.212
##   alc_heavy      315.854        73.849        0.312     4.277    0.000      167.202     464.505
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
## - gender
##
## Backward Elimination: Step 2
##
##  Variable gender Removed
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 197.292
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             28.101
## Adj. R-Squared          0.754       MSE                38924.162
## Pred R-Squared          0.692       MAE                  138.160
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6540084.920         6    1090014.153    28.004    0.0000
## Residual      1829435.617        47      38924.162
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1143.080       235.943                 -4.845    0.000    -1617.737    -668.424
##         bcs       61.424        23.748        0.248     2.586    0.013       13.649     109.199
##      pindex        8.974         1.832        0.382     4.900    0.000        5.290      12.659
## enzyme_test        9.852         1.700        0.527     5.794    0.000        6.431      13.273
##  liver_test       54.053        42.288        0.146     1.278    0.207      -31.019     139.125
##         age       -0.850         2.563       -0.024    -0.332    0.742       -6.007       4.307
##   alc_heavy      314.585        72.974        0.310     4.311    0.000      167.781     461.390
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
## - age
##
## Backward Elimination: Step 3
##
##  Variable age Removed
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
## No more variables satisfy the condition of p value = 0.3
##
##
## Variables Removed:
##
## - alc_mod
## - gender
## - age
##
##
## Final Model Output
## ------------------
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##                            Elimination Summary
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Step    Removed     R-Square    R-Square     C(p)       AIC         RMSE
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------
##    1    alc_mod       0.7818      0.7486    7.0141    734.4068    199.2637
##    2    gender        0.7814      0.7535    5.0870    732.4942    197.2921
##    3    age           0.7809      0.7581    3.1925    730.6204    195.4544
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------

## Stepwise Regression

Build regression model from a set of candidate predictor variables by entering and removing predictors based on p values, in a stepwise manner until there is no variable left to enter or remove any more. The model should include all the candidate predictor variables. If details is set to TRUE, each step is displayed.

### Variable Selection

# stepwise regression
model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
ols_step_both_p(model)
## Stepwise Selection Method
## ---------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1. bcs
## 2. pindex
## 3. enzyme_test
## 4. liver_test
## 5. age
## 6. gender
## 7. alc_mod
## 8. alc_heavy
##
## We are selecting variables based on p value...
##
## Variables Entered/Removed:
##
## - liver_test added
## - alc_heavy added
## - enzyme_test added
## - pindex added
## - bcs added
##
## No more variables to be added/removed.
##
##
## Final Model Output
## ------------------
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                 Stepwise Selection Summary
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Step     Variable      Removed     R-Square    R-Square     C(p)        AIC         RMSE
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##    1    liver_test     addition       0.455       0.444    62.5120    771.8753    296.2992
##    2     alc_heavy     addition       0.567       0.550    41.3680    761.4394    266.6484
##    3    enzyme_test    addition       0.659       0.639    24.3380    750.5089    238.9145
##    4      pindex       addition       0.750       0.730     7.5370    735.7146    206.5835
##    5        bcs        addition       0.781       0.758     3.1920    730.6204    195.4544
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

### Plot

model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
k <- ols_step_both_p(model)
## Stepwise Selection Method
## ---------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1. bcs
## 2. pindex
## 3. enzyme_test
## 4. liver_test
## 5. age
## 6. gender
## 7. alc_mod
## 8. alc_heavy
##
## We are selecting variables based on p value...
##
## Variables Entered/Removed:
##
## - liver_test added
## - alc_heavy added
## - enzyme_test added
## - pindex added
## - bcs added
##
## No more variables to be added/removed.
##
##
## Final Model Output
## ------------------
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
plot(k)

### Detailed Output

# stepwise regression
model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
ols_step_both_p(model, details = TRUE)
## Stepwise Selection Method
## ---------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1. bcs
## 2. pindex
## 3. enzyme_test
## 4. liver_test
## 5. age
## 6. gender
## 7. alc_mod
## 8. alc_heavy
##
## We are selecting variables based on p value...
##
##
## Stepwise Selection: Step 1
##
## - liver_test added
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.674       RMSE                 296.299
## R-Squared               0.455       Coef. Var             42.202
## Adj. R-Squared          0.444       MSE                87793.232
## Pred R-Squared          0.386       MAE                  212.857
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    3804272.477         1    3804272.477    43.332    0.0000
## Residual      4565248.060        52      87793.232
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                     Parameter Estimates
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model       Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t       Sig        lower      upper
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)     15.191       111.869                 0.136    0.893    -209.290    239.671
##  liver_test    250.305        38.025        0.674    6.583    0.000     174.003    326.607
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
## Stepwise Selection: Step 2
##
## - alc_heavy added
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.753       RMSE                 266.648
## R-Squared               0.567       Coef. Var             37.979
## Adj. R-Squared          0.550       MSE                71101.387
## Pred R-Squared          0.487       MAE                  187.393
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    4743349.776         2    2371674.888    33.356    0.0000
## Residual      3626170.761        51      71101.387
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                     Parameter Estimates
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model       Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig        lower      upper
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)     -5.069       100.828                 -0.050    0.960    -207.490    197.352
##  liver_test    234.597        34.491        0.632     6.802    0.000     165.353    303.841
##   alc_heavy    342.183        94.156        0.338     3.634    0.001     153.157    531.208
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.753       RMSE                 266.648
## R-Squared               0.567       Coef. Var             37.979
## Adj. R-Squared          0.550       MSE                71101.387
## Pred R-Squared          0.487       MAE                  187.393
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    4743349.776         2    2371674.888    33.356    0.0000
## Residual      3626170.761        51      71101.387
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                     Parameter Estimates
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model       Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig        lower      upper
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)     -5.069       100.828                 -0.050    0.960    -207.490    197.352
##  liver_test    234.597        34.491        0.632     6.802    0.000     165.353    303.841
##   alc_heavy    342.183        94.156        0.338     3.634    0.001     153.157    531.208
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
## Stepwise Selection: Step 3
##
## - enzyme_test added
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.812       RMSE                 238.914
## R-Squared               0.659       Coef. Var             34.029
## Adj. R-Squared          0.639       MSE                57080.128
## Pred R-Squared          0.567       MAE                  170.603
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    5515514.136         3    1838504.712    32.209    0.0000
## Residual      2854006.401        50      57080.128
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                      Parameter Estimates
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model        Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig        lower      upper
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -344.559       129.156                 -2.668    0.010    -603.976    -85.141
##  liver_test     183.844        33.845        0.495     5.432    0.000     115.865    251.823
##   alc_heavy     319.662        84.585        0.315     3.779    0.000     149.769    489.555
## enzyme_test       6.263         1.703        0.335     3.678    0.001       2.843      9.683
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.812       RMSE                 238.914
## R-Squared               0.659       Coef. Var             34.029
## Adj. R-Squared          0.639       MSE                57080.128
## Pred R-Squared          0.567       MAE                  170.603
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    5515514.136         3    1838504.712    32.209    0.0000
## Residual      2854006.401        50      57080.128
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                      Parameter Estimates
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model        Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig        lower      upper
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -344.559       129.156                 -2.668    0.010    -603.976    -85.141
##  liver_test     183.844        33.845        0.495     5.432    0.000     115.865    251.823
##   alc_heavy     319.662        84.585        0.315     3.779    0.000     149.769    489.555
## enzyme_test       6.263         1.703        0.335     3.678    0.001       2.843      9.683
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
## Stepwise Selection: Step 4
##
## - pindex added
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.866       RMSE                 206.584
## R-Squared               0.750       Coef. Var             29.424
## Adj. R-Squared          0.730       MSE                42676.744
## Pred R-Squared          0.669       MAE                  146.473
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6278360.060         4    1569590.015    36.779    0.0000
## Residual      2091160.477        49      42676.744
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model        Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -789.012       153.372                 -5.144    0.000    -1097.226    -480.799
##  liver_test     125.474        32.358        0.338     3.878    0.000       60.448     190.499
##   alc_heavy     359.875        73.754        0.355     4.879    0.000      211.660     508.089
## enzyme_test       7.548         1.503        0.404     5.020    0.000        4.527      10.569
##      pindex       7.876         1.863        0.335     4.228    0.000        4.133      11.620
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.866       RMSE                 206.584
## R-Squared               0.750       Coef. Var             29.424
## Adj. R-Squared          0.730       MSE                42676.744
## Pred R-Squared          0.669       MAE                  146.473
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6278360.060         4    1569590.015    36.779    0.0000
## Residual      2091160.477        49      42676.744
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model        Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -789.012       153.372                 -5.144    0.000    -1097.226    -480.799
##  liver_test     125.474        32.358        0.338     3.878    0.000       60.448     190.499
##   alc_heavy     359.875        73.754        0.355     4.879    0.000      211.660     508.089
## enzyme_test       7.548         1.503        0.404     5.020    0.000        4.527      10.569
##      pindex       7.876         1.863        0.335     4.228    0.000        4.133      11.620
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
## Stepwise Selection: Step 5
##
## - bcs added
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##
## No more variables to be added/removed.
##
##
## Final Model Output
## ------------------
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                 Stepwise Selection Summary
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Step     Variable      Removed     R-Square    R-Square     C(p)        AIC         RMSE
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##    1    liver_test     addition       0.455       0.444    62.5120    771.8753    296.2992
##    2     alc_heavy     addition       0.567       0.550    41.3680    761.4394    266.6484
##    3    enzyme_test    addition       0.659       0.639    24.3380    750.5089    238.9145
##    4      pindex       addition       0.750       0.730     7.5370    735.7146    206.5835
##    5        bcs        addition       0.781       0.758     3.1920    730.6204    195.4544
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

## Stepwise AIC Forward Regression

Build regression model from a set of candidate predictor variables by entering predictors based on Akaike Information Criteria, in a stepwise manner until there is no variable left to enter any more. The model should include all the candidate predictor variables. If details is set to TRUE, each step is displayed.

### Variable Selection

# stepwise aic forward regression
model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
ols_step_forward_aic(model)
## Forward Selection Method
## ------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1 . bcs
## 2 . pindex
## 3 . enzyme_test
## 4 . liver_test
## 5 . age
## 6 . gender
## 7 . alc_mod
## 8 . alc_heavy
##
##
## Variables Entered:
##
## - liver_test
## - alc_heavy
## - enzyme_test
## - pindex
## - bcs
##
## No more variables to be added.
##
##                              Selection Summary
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable         AIC        Sum Sq           RSS         R-Sq      Adj. R-Sq
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
## liver_test     771.875    3804272.477    4565248.060    0.45454      0.44405
## alc_heavy      761.439    4743349.776    3626170.761    0.56674      0.54975
## enzyme_test    750.509    5515514.136    2854006.401    0.65900      0.63854
## pindex         735.715    6278360.060    2091160.477    0.75015      0.72975
## bcs            730.620    6535804.090    1833716.447    0.78091      0.75808
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

### Plot

model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
k <- ols_step_forward_aic(model)
## Forward Selection Method
## ------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1 . bcs
## 2 . pindex
## 3 . enzyme_test
## 4 . liver_test
## 5 . age
## 6 . gender
## 7 . alc_mod
## 8 . alc_heavy
##
##
## Variables Entered:
##
## - liver_test
## - alc_heavy
## - enzyme_test
## - pindex
## - bcs
##
## No more variables to be added.
plot(k)

### Detailed Output

# stepwise aic forward regression
model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
ols_step_forward_aic(model, details = TRUE)
## Forward Selection Method
## ------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1 . bcs
## 2 . pindex
## 3 . enzyme_test
## 4 . liver_test
## 5 . age
## 6 . gender
## 7 . alc_mod
## 8 . alc_heavy
##
##  Step 0: AIC = 802.606
##  y ~ 1
##
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable       DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## liver_test      1    771.875    3804272.477    4565248.060    0.455        0.444
## enzyme_test     1    782.629    2798309.881    5571210.656    0.334        0.322
## pindex          1    794.100    1479766.754    6889753.784    0.177        0.161
## alc_heavy       1    794.301    1454057.255    6915463.282    0.174        0.158
## bcs             1    797.697    1005151.658    7364368.879    0.120        0.103
## alc_mod         1    802.828     271062.330    8098458.207    0.032        0.014
## gender          1    802.956     251808.570    8117711.967    0.030        0.011
## age             1    803.834     118862.559    8250657.978    0.014       -0.005
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
## - liver_test
##
##
##  Step 1 : AIC = 771.8753
##  y ~ liver_test
##
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable       DF      AIC        Sum Sq          RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## alc_heavy       1    761.439    939077.300    3626170.761    0.567        0.550
## enzyme_test     1    762.077    896004.331    3669243.729    0.562        0.544
## pindex          1    770.387    285591.786    4279656.274    0.489        0.469
## alc_mod         1    771.141    225396.238    4339851.822    0.481        0.461
## gender          1    773.802      6162.222    4559085.838    0.455        0.434
## age             1    773.831      3726.297    4561521.763    0.455        0.434
## bcs             1    773.867       685.256    4564562.805    0.455        0.433
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## - alc_heavy
##
##
##  Step 2 : AIC = 761.4394
##  y ~ liver_test + alc_heavy
##
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable       DF      AIC        Sum Sq          RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## enzyme_test     1    750.509    772164.360    2854006.401    0.659        0.639
## pindex          1    756.125    459358.635    3166812.126    0.622        0.599
## bcs             1    763.063     25195.587    3600975.173    0.570        0.544
## age             1    763.110     22048.109    3604122.652    0.569        0.544
## alc_mod         1    763.428       784.551    3625386.210    0.567        0.541
## gender          1    763.433       443.343    3625727.417    0.567        0.541
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## - enzyme_test
##
##
##  Step 3 : AIC = 750.5089
##  y ~ liver_test + alc_heavy + enzyme_test
##
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable     DF      AIC        Sum Sq          RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
## pindex        1    735.715    762845.924    2091160.477    0.750        0.730
## bcs           1    750.782     89836.308    2764170.093    0.670        0.643
## alc_mod       1    752.403      5607.570    2848398.831    0.660        0.632
## age           1    752.416      4896.081    2849110.320    0.660        0.632
## gender        1    752.509         5.958    2854000.443    0.659        0.631
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## - pindex
##
##
##  Step 4 : AIC = 735.7146
##  y ~ liver_test + alc_heavy + enzyme_test + pindex
##
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable     DF      AIC        Sum Sq          RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
## bcs           1    730.620    257444.030    1833716.447    0.781        0.758
## age           1    737.680      1325.880    2089834.596    0.750        0.724
## gender        1    737.712        90.186    2091070.290    0.750        0.724
## alc_mod       1    737.713        60.620    2091099.857    0.750        0.724
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## - bcs
##
##
##  Step 5 : AIC = 730.6204
##  y ~ liver_test + alc_heavy + enzyme_test + pindex + bcs
##
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable     DF      AIC       Sum Sq         RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
## age           1    732.494    4280.830    1829435.617    0.781        0.754
## gender        1    732.551    2360.288    1831356.159    0.781        0.753
## alc_mod       1    732.614     216.992    1833499.455    0.781        0.753
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
## No more variables to be added.
##
## Variables Entered:
##
## - liver_test
## - alc_heavy
## - enzyme_test
## - pindex
## - bcs
##
##
## Final Model Output
## ------------------
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                              Selection Summary
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable         AIC        Sum Sq           RSS         R-Sq      Adj. R-Sq
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
## liver_test     771.875    3804272.477    4565248.060    0.45454      0.44405
## alc_heavy      761.439    4743349.776    3626170.761    0.56674      0.54975
## enzyme_test    750.509    5515514.136    2854006.401    0.65900      0.63854
## pindex         735.715    6278360.060    2091160.477    0.75015      0.72975
## bcs            730.620    6535804.090    1833716.447    0.78091      0.75808
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

## Stepwise AIC Backward Regression

Build regression model from a set of candidate predictor variables by removing predictors based on Akaike Information Criteria, in a stepwise manner until there is no variable left to remove any more. The model should include all the candidate predictor variables. If details is set to TRUE, each step is displayed.

### Variable Selection

# stepwise aic backward regression
model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
k <- ols_step_backward_aic(model)
## Backward Elimination Method
## ---------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1 . bcs
## 2 . pindex
## 3 . enzyme_test
## 4 . liver_test
## 5 . age
## 6 . gender
## 7 . alc_mod
## 8 . alc_heavy
##
##
## Variables Removed:
##
## - alc_mod
## - gender
## - age
##
## No more variables to be removed.
k
##
##
##                         Backward Elimination Summary
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable        AIC          RSS          Sum Sq        R-Sq      Adj. R-Sq
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Full Model    736.390    1825905.713    6543614.824    0.78184      0.74305
## alc_mod       734.407    1826477.828    6543042.709    0.78177      0.74856
## gender        732.494    1829435.617    6540084.920    0.78142      0.75351
## age           730.620    1833716.447    6535804.090    0.78091      0.75808
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

### Plot

model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
k <- ols_step_backward_aic(model)
## Backward Elimination Method
## ---------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1 . bcs
## 2 . pindex
## 3 . enzyme_test
## 4 . liver_test
## 5 . age
## 6 . gender
## 7 . alc_mod
## 8 . alc_heavy
##
##
## Variables Removed:
##
## - alc_mod
## - gender
## - age
##
## No more variables to be removed.
plot(k)

### Detailed Output

# stepwise aic backward regression
model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
ols_step_backward_aic(model, details = TRUE)
## Backward Elimination Method
## ---------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1 . bcs
## 2 . pindex
## 3 . enzyme_test
## 4 . liver_test
## 5 . age
## 6 . gender
## 7 . alc_mod
## 8 . alc_heavy
##
##  Step 0: AIC = 736.3899
##  y ~ bcs + pindex + enzyme_test + liver_test + age + gender + alc_mod + alc_heavy
##
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable       DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## alc_mod        1     734.407        572.115    1826477.828    0.782        0.749
## gender         1     734.478       2990.338    1828896.051    0.781        0.748
## age            1     734.544       5231.108    1831136.821    0.781        0.748
## liver_test     1     735.878      51016.156    1876921.869    0.776        0.742
## bcs            1     741.677     263780.393    2089686.106    0.750        0.712
## alc_heavy      1     749.210     576636.222    2402541.935    0.713        0.669
## pindex         1     756.624     930187.311    2756093.024    0.671        0.621
## enzyme_test    1     763.557    1307756.930    3133662.644    0.626        0.569
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
## - alc_mod
##
##
##   Step 1 : AIC = 734.4068
##  y ~ bcs + pindex + enzyme_test + liver_test + age + gender + alc_heavy
##
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable       DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## gender         1     732.494       2957.789    1829435.617    0.781        0.754
## age            1     732.551       4878.331    1831356.159    0.781        0.753
## liver_test     1     733.921      51951.343    1878429.171    0.776        0.747
## bcs            1     739.677     263219.094    2089696.922    0.750        0.718
## alc_heavy      1     750.486     726328.685    2552806.513    0.695        0.656
## pindex         1     754.759     936543.762    2763021.590    0.670        0.628
## enzyme_test    1     761.595    1309433.007    3135910.834    0.625        0.577
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## - gender
##
##
##   Step 2 : AIC = 732.4942
##  y ~ bcs + pindex + enzyme_test + liver_test + age + alc_heavy
##
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable       DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## age            1     730.620       4280.830    1833716.447    0.781        0.758
## liver_test     1     732.339      63596.190    1893031.807    0.774        0.750
## bcs            1     737.680     260398.979    2089834.596    0.750        0.724
## alc_heavy      1     748.486     723371.473    2552807.090    0.695        0.663
## pindex         1     752.777     934511.071    2763946.688    0.670        0.635
## enzyme_test    1     759.596    1306482.666    3135918.283    0.625        0.586
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## - age
##
##
##   Step 3 : AIC = 730.6204
##  y ~ bcs + pindex + enzyme_test + liver_test + alc_heavy
##
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable       DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## liver_test     1     730.924      79919.825    1913636.272    0.771        0.753
## bcs            1     735.715     257444.030    2091160.477    0.750        0.730
## alc_heavy      1     747.181     752122.827    2585839.274    0.691        0.666
## pindex         1     750.782     930453.646    2764170.093    0.670        0.643
## enzyme_test    1     757.971    1324076.125    3157792.572    0.623        0.592
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
## No more variables to be removed.
##
## Variables Removed:
##
## - alc_mod
## - gender
## - age
##
##
## Final Model Output
## ------------------
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##                         Backward Elimination Summary
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable        AIC          RSS          Sum Sq        R-Sq      Adj. R-Sq
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Full Model    736.390    1825905.713    6543614.824    0.78184      0.74305
## alc_mod       734.407    1826477.828    6543042.709    0.78177      0.74856
## gender        732.494    1829435.617    6540084.920    0.78142      0.75351
## age           730.620    1833716.447    6535804.090    0.78091      0.75808
## ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

## Stepwise AIC Regression

Build regression model from a set of candidate predictor variables by entering and removing predictors based on Akaike Information Criteria, in a stepwise manner until there is no variable left to enter or remove any more. The model should include all the candidate predictor variables. If details is set to TRUE, each step is displayed.

### Variable Selection

# stepwise aic regression
model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
ols_step_both_aic(model)
## Stepwise Selection Method
## -------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1 . bcs
## 2 . pindex
## 3 . enzyme_test
## 4 . liver_test
## 5 . age
## 6 . gender
## 7 . alc_mod
## 8 . alc_heavy
##
##
## Variables Entered/Removed:
##
## - liver_test added
## - alc_heavy added
## - enzyme_test added
## - pindex added
## - bcs added
##
## No more variables to be added or removed.
##
##
##                                      Stepwise Summary
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable        Method       AIC          RSS          Sum Sq        R-Sq      Adj. R-Sq
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## liver_test     addition    771.875    4565248.060    3804272.477    0.45454      0.44405
## alc_heavy      addition    761.439    3626170.761    4743349.776    0.56674      0.54975
## enzyme_test    addition    750.509    2854006.401    5515514.136    0.65900      0.63854
## pindex         addition    735.715    2091160.477    6278360.060    0.75015      0.72975
## bcs            addition    730.620    1833716.447    6535804.090    0.78091      0.75808
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

### Plot

model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
k <- ols_step_both_aic(model)
## Stepwise Selection Method
## -------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1 . bcs
## 2 . pindex
## 3 . enzyme_test
## 4 . liver_test
## 5 . age
## 6 . gender
## 7 . alc_mod
## 8 . alc_heavy
##
##
## Variables Entered/Removed:
##
## - liver_test added
## - alc_heavy added
## - enzyme_test added
## - pindex added
## - bcs added
##
## No more variables to be added or removed.
plot(k)

### Detailed Output

# stepwise aic regression
model <- lm(y ~ ., data = surgical)
ols_step_both_aic(model, details = TRUE)
## Stepwise Selection Method
## -------------------------
##
## Candidate Terms:
##
## 1 . bcs
## 2 . pindex
## 3 . enzyme_test
## 4 . liver_test
## 5 . age
## 6 . gender
## 7 . alc_mod
## 8 . alc_heavy
##
##  Step 0: AIC = 802.606
##  y ~ 1
##
##
##                                Enter New Variables
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable       DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## liver_test      1    771.875    3804272.477    4565248.060    0.455        0.444
## enzyme_test     1    782.629    2798309.881    5571210.656    0.334        0.322
## pindex          1    794.100    1479766.754    6889753.784    0.177        0.161
## alc_heavy       1    794.301    1454057.255    6915463.282    0.174        0.158
## bcs             1    797.697    1005151.658    7364368.879    0.120        0.103
## alc_mod         1    802.828     271062.330    8098458.207    0.032        0.014
## gender          1    802.956     251808.570    8117711.967    0.030        0.011
## age             1    803.834     118862.559    8250657.978    0.014       -0.005
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## - liver_test added
##
##
##  Step 1 : AIC = 771.8753
##  y ~ liver_test
##
##                                Enter New Variables
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable       DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## alc_heavy       1    761.439    4743349.776    3626170.761    0.567        0.550
## enzyme_test     1    762.077    4700276.808    3669243.729    0.562        0.544
## pindex          1    770.387    4089864.263    4279656.274    0.489        0.469
## alc_mod         1    771.141    4029668.715    4339851.822    0.481        0.461
## gender          1    773.802    3810434.699    4559085.838    0.455        0.434
## age             1    773.831    3807998.774    4561521.763    0.455        0.434
## bcs             1    773.867    3804957.732    4564562.805    0.455        0.433
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## - alc_heavy added
##
##
##  Step 2 : AIC = 761.4394
##  y ~ liver_test + alc_heavy
##
##                            Remove Existing Variables
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable      DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## alc_heavy      1    771.875    3804272.477    4565248.060    0.455        0.444
## liver_test     1    794.301    1454057.255    6915463.282    0.174        0.158
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                Enter New Variables
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable       DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## enzyme_test     1    750.509    5515514.136    2854006.401    0.659        0.639
## pindex          1    756.125    5202708.411    3166812.126    0.622        0.599
## bcs             1    763.063    4768545.364    3600975.173    0.570        0.544
## age             1    763.110    4765397.885    3604122.652    0.569        0.544
## alc_mod         1    763.428    4744134.327    3625386.210    0.567        0.541
## gender          1    763.433    4743793.120    3625727.417    0.567        0.541
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## - enzyme_test added
##
##
##  Step 3 : AIC = 750.5089
##  y ~ liver_test + alc_heavy + enzyme_test
##
##                            Remove Existing Variables
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable       DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## enzyme_test     1    761.439    4743349.776    3626170.761    0.567        0.550
## alc_heavy       1    762.077    4700276.808    3669243.729    0.562        0.544
## liver_test      1    773.555    3831289.024    4538231.513    0.458        0.437
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                               Enter New Variables
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable     DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## pindex        1    735.715    6278360.060    2091160.477    0.750        0.730
## bcs           1    750.782    5605350.444    2764170.093    0.670        0.643
## alc_mod       1    752.403    5521121.706    2848398.831    0.660        0.632
## age           1    752.416    5520410.217    2849110.320    0.660        0.632
## gender        1    752.509    5515520.094    2854000.443    0.659        0.631
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## - pindex added
##
##
##  Step 4 : AIC = 735.7146
##  y ~ liver_test + alc_heavy + enzyme_test + pindex
##
##                            Remove Existing Variables
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable       DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## liver_test      1    748.167    5636649.760    2732870.777    0.673        0.654
## pindex          1    750.509    5515514.136    2854006.401    0.659        0.639
## alc_heavy       1    755.099    5262294.325    3107226.212    0.629        0.606
## enzyme_test     1    756.125    5202708.411    3166812.126    0.622        0.599
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                               Enter New Variables
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable     DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## bcs           1    730.620    6535804.090    1833716.447    0.781        0.758
## age           1    737.680    6279685.941    2089834.596    0.750        0.724
## gender        1    737.712    6278450.247    2091070.290    0.750        0.724
## alc_mod       1    737.713    6278420.680    2091099.857    0.750        0.724
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
## - bcs added
##
##
##  Step 5 : AIC = 730.6204
##  y ~ liver_test + alc_heavy + enzyme_test + pindex + bcs
##
##                            Remove Existing Variables
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable       DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## liver_test      1    730.924    6455884.265    1913636.272    0.771        0.753
## bcs             1    735.715    6278360.060    2091160.477    0.750        0.730
## alc_heavy       1    747.181    5783681.263    2585839.274    0.691        0.666
## pindex          1    750.782    5605350.444    2764170.093    0.670        0.643
## enzyme_test     1    757.971    5211727.965    3157792.572    0.623        0.592
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                               Enter New Variables
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable     DF      AIC        Sum Sq           RSS        R-Sq     Adj. R-Sq
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## age           1    732.494    6540084.920    1829435.617    0.781        0.754
## gender        1    732.551    6538164.378    1831356.159    0.781        0.753
## alc_mod       1    732.614    6536021.082    1833499.455    0.781        0.753
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
## No more variables to be added or removed.
##
## Final Model Output
## ------------------
##
##                           Model Summary
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
## R                       0.884       RMSE                 195.454
## R-Squared               0.781       Coef. Var             27.839
## Adj. R-Squared          0.758       MSE                38202.426
## Pred R-Squared          0.700       MAE                  137.656
## -----------------------------------------------------------------
##  RMSE: Root Mean Square Error
##  MSE: Mean Square Error
##  MAE: Mean Absolute Error
##
##                                  ANOVA
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                    Sum of
##                   Squares        DF    Mean Square      F         Sig.
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
## Regression    6535804.090         5    1307160.818    34.217    0.0000
## Residual      1833716.447        48      38202.426
## Total         8369520.537        53
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##                                       Parameter Estimates
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##       model         Beta    Std. Error    Std. Beta      t        Sig         lower       upper
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## (Intercept)    -1178.330       208.682                 -5.647    0.000    -1597.914    -758.746
##  liver_test       58.064        40.144        0.156     1.446    0.155      -22.652     138.779
##   alc_heavy      317.848        71.634        0.314     4.437    0.000      173.818     461.878
## enzyme_test        9.748         1.656        0.521     5.887    0.000        6.419      13.077
##      pindex        8.924         1.808        0.380     4.935    0.000        5.288      12.559
##         bcs       59.864        23.060        0.241     2.596    0.012       13.498     106.230
## ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##
##                                      Stepwise Summary
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Variable        Method       AIC          RSS          Sum Sq        R-Sq      Adj. R-Sq
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## liver_test     addition    771.875    4565248.060    3804272.477    0.45454      0.44405
## alc_heavy      addition    761.439    3626170.761    4743349.776    0.56674      0.54975
## enzyme_test    addition    750.509    2854006.401    5515514.136    0.65900      0.63854
## pindex         addition    735.715    2091160.477    6278360.060    0.75015      0.72975
## bcs            addition    730.620    1833716.447    6535804.090    0.78091      0.75808
## ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------