ggstatsplot
: ggplot2
Based Plots with Statistical DetailsPackage  Status  Usage  GitHub  References 

“What is to be sought in designs for the display of information is the clear portrayal of complexity. Not the complication of the simple; rather … the revelation of the complex.”
 Edward R. Tufte
ggstatsplot
is an extension of ggplot2
package for creating graphics with details from statistical tests included in the informationrich plots themselves. In a typical exploratory data analysis workflow, data visualization and statistical modeling are two different phases: visualization informs modeling, and modeling in its turn can suggest a different visualization method, and so on and so forth. The central idea of ggstatsplot
is simple: combine these two phases into one in the form of graphics with statistical details, which makes data exploration simpler and faster.
It, therefore, produces a limited kinds of plots for the supported analyses:
Function  Plot  Description 

ggbetweenstats 
violin plots  for comparisons between groups/conditions 
ggwithinstats 
violin plots  for comparisons within groups/conditions 
gghistostats 
histograms  for distribution about numeric variable 
ggdotplotstats 
dot plots/charts  for distribution about labeled numeric variable 
ggpiestats 
pie charts  for categorical data 
ggbarstats 
bar charts  for categorical data 
ggscatterstats 
scatterplots  for correlations between two variables 
ggcorrmat 
correlation matrices  for correlations between multiple variables 
ggcoefstats 
dotandwhisker plots  for regression models and metaanalysis 
In addition to these basic plots, ggstatsplot
also provides grouped_
versions (see below) that makes it easy to repeat the same analysis for any grouping variable.
Currently, it supports only the most common types of statistical tests: parametric, nonparametric, robust, and bayesian versions of ttest/anova, correlation analyses, contingency table analysis, metaanalysis, and regression analyses.
The table below summarizes all the different types of analyses currently supported in this package
Functions  Description  Parametric  Nonparametric  Robust  Bayes Factor 

ggbetweenstats 
Between group/condition comparisons  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes 
ggwithinstats 
Within group/condition comparisons  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes 
gghistostats , ggdotplotstats 
Distribution of a numeric variable  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes 
ggcorrmat 
Correlation matrix  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes 
ggscatterstats 
Correlation between two variables  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes 
ggpiestats , ggbarstats 
Association between categorical variables  Yes  NA 
NA 
Yes 
ggpiestats , ggbarstats 
Equal proportions for categorical variable levels  Yes  NA 
NA 
Yes 
ggcoefstats 
Regression model coefficients  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes 
ggcoefstats 
Randomeffects metaanalysis  Yes  NA 
Yes  Yes 
Summary of Bayesian analysis
Analysis  Hypothesis testing  Estimation 

(one/twosample) ttest  Yes  Yes 
oneway ANOVA  Yes  Yes 
correlation  Yes  Yes 
(one/twoway) contingency table  Yes  Yes 
randomeffects metaanalysis  Yes  Yes 
For all statistical tests reported in the plots, the default template abides by the APA gold standard for statistical reporting. For example, here are results from Yuen’s test for trimmed means (robust ttest):
Here is a summary table of all the statistical tests currently supported across various functions: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/statsExpressions/articles/stats_details.html
To get the latest, stable CRAN
release:
Note:
If you are on a linux machine, you will need to have OpenGL libraries installed (specifically, libx11
, mesa
and Mesa OpenGL Utility library  glu
) for the dependency package rgl
to work.
Additionally, ggstatsplot
depends on Rrmpfr
, which requires an OS library that might not be installed by default on TSD mpfrdevel: https://rmpfr.rforge.rproject.org/
You can get the development version of the package from GitHub
. To see what new changes (and bug fixes) have been made to the package since the last release on CRAN
, you can check the detailed log of changes here: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/ggstatsplot/news/index.html
If you are in hurry and want to reduce the time of installation, prefer
# needed package to download from GitHub repo
install.packages("remotes")
# downloading the package from GitHub (needs `remotes` package to be installed)
remotes::install_github(
repo = "IndrajeetPatil/ggstatsplot", # package path on GitHub
dependencies = FALSE, # assumes you have already installed needed packages
quick = TRUE # skips docs, demos, and vignettes
)
If time is not a constraint
remotes::install_github(
repo = "IndrajeetPatil/ggstatsplot", # package path on GitHub
dependencies = TRUE, # installs packages which ggstatsplot depends on
upgrade_dependencies = TRUE # updates any out of date dependencies
)
If you want to cite this package in a scientific journal or in any other context, run the following code in your R
console:
citation("ggstatsplot")
#>
#> Patil, I. (2018). ggstatsplot: 'ggplot2' Based Plots with Statistical
#> Details. CRAN. Retrieved from
#> https://cran.rproject.org/web/packages/ggstatsplot/index.html
#>
#> A BibTeX entry for LaTeX users is
#>
#> @Article{,
#> title = {{ggstatsplot}: 'ggplot2' Based Plots with Statistical Details},
#> author = {Indrajeet Patil},
#> year = {2018},
#> journal = {CRAN},
#> url = {https://CRAN.Rproject.org/package=ggstatsplot},
#> doi = {10.5281/zenodo.2074621},
#> }
There is currently a publication in preparation corresponding to this package and the citation will be updated once it’s published.
To see the detailed documentation for each function in the stable CRAN version of the package, see:
README: https://CRAN.Rproject.org/package=ggstatsplot/readme/README.html
Presentation: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/ggstatsplot_slides/slides/ggstatsplot_presentation.html#1
Vignettes: https://CRAN.Rproject.org/package=ggstatsplot/vignettes/additional.html
To see the documentation relevant for the development version of the package, see the dedicated website for ggstatplot
, which is updated after every new commit: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/ggstatsplot/.
Here are examples of the main functions currently supported in ggstatsplot
.
Note: If you are reading this on GitHub
repository, the documentation below is for the development version of the package. So you may see some features available here that are not currently present in the stable version of this package on CRAN. For documentation relevant for the CRAN
version, see: https://CRAN.Rproject.org/package=ggstatsplot/readme/README.html
ggbetweenstats
This function creates either a violin plot, a box plot, or a mix of two for betweengroup or betweencondition comparisons with results from statistical tests in the subtitle. The simplest function call looks like this
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
library(ggstatsplot)
# plot
ggstatsplot::ggbetweenstats(
data = iris,
x = Species,
y = Sepal.Length,
title = "Distribution of sepal length across Iris species"
)
Note that this function returns object of class ggplot
and thus can be further modified using ggplot2
functions.
A number of other arguments can be specified to make this plot even more informative or change some of the default options. Additionally, this time we will use a grouping variable that has only two levels. The function will automatically switch from carrying out an ANOVA analysis to a ttest.
The type
(of test) argument also accepts the following abbreviations: "p"
(for parametric) or "np"
(for nonparametric) or "r"
(for robust) or "bf"
(for Bayes Factor). Additionally, the type of plot to be displayed can also be modified ("box"
, "violin"
, or "boxviolin"
).
A number of other arguments can be specified to make this plot even more informative or change some of the default options.
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
library(ggplot2)
# plot
ggstatsplot::ggbetweenstats(
data = ToothGrowth,
x = supp,
y = len,
notch = TRUE, # show notched box plot
mean.ci = TRUE, # whether to display confidence interval for means
k = 3, # number of decimal places for statistical results
outlier.tagging = TRUE, # whether outliers need to be tagged
outlier.label = dose, # variable to be used for tagging outliers
xlab = "Supplement type", # label for the xaxis variable
ylab = "Tooth length", # label for the yaxis variable
title = "The Effect of Vitamin C on Tooth Growth", # title text for the plot
ggtheme = ggthemes::theme_fivethirtyeight(), # choosing a different theme
ggstatsplot.layer = FALSE, # turn off `ggstatsplot` theme layer
package = "wesanderson", # package from which color palette is to be taken
palette = "Darjeeling1" # choosing a different color palette
)
Additionally, there is also a grouped_
variant of this function that makes it easy to repeat the same operation across a single grouping variable:
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# plot
ggstatsplot::grouped_ggbetweenstats(
data = dplyr::filter(
.data = ggstatsplot::movies_long,
genre %in% c("Action", "Action Comedy", "Action Drama", "Comedy")
),
x = mpaa,
y = length,
grouping.var = genre, # grouping variable
ggsignif.args = list(textsize = 4, tip_length = 0.01),
p.adjust.method = "bonferroni", # method for adjusting pvalues for multiple comparisons
# adding new components to `ggstatsplot` default
ggplot.component = list(ggplot2::scale_y_continuous(sec.axis = ggplot2::dup_axis())),
k = 3,
title.prefix = "Movie genre",
caption = substitute(paste(italic("Source"), ": IMDb (Internet Movie Database)")),
palette = "default_jama",
package = "ggsci",
plotgrid.args = list(nrow = 2),
title.text = "Differences in movie length by mpaa ratings for different genres"
)
Following (betweensubjects) tests are carried out for each type of analyses
Type  No. of groups  Test  Function 

Parametric  > 2  Fisher’s or Welch’s oneway ANOVA  stats::oneway.test 
Nonparametric  > 2  Kruskal–Wallis oneway ANOVA  stats::kruskal.test 
Robust  > 2  Heteroscedastic oneway ANOVA for trimmed means  WRS2::t1way 
Bayes Factor  > 2  Fisher’s ANOVA  BayesFactor::anovaBF 
Parametric  2  Student’s or Welch’s ttest  stats::t.test 
Nonparametric  2  Mann–Whitney U test  stats::wilcox.test 
Robust  2  Yuen’s test for trimmed means  WRS2::yuen 
Bayes Factor  2  Student’s ttest  BayesFactor::ttestBF 
Following effect sizes (and confidence intervals/CI) are available for each type of test
Type  No. of groups  Effect size  CI?  Function 

Parametric  > 2  ,  Yes  effectsize::omega_squared , effectsize::eta_squared 
Nonparametric  > 2  (Hstatistic based etasquared)  Yes  rcompanion::epsilonSquared 
Robust  > 2  (Explanatory measure of effect size)  Yes  WRS2::t1way 
Bayes Factor  > 2  Yes  performance::r2_bayes 

Parametric  2  Cohen’s d, Hedge’s g  Yes  effectsize::cohens_d , effectsize::hedges_g 
Nonparametric  2  r (computed as )  Yes  rcompanion::wilcoxonR 
Robust  2  (Explanatory measure of effect size)  Yes  WRS2::yuen.effect.ci 
Bayes Factor  2  Yes  bayestestR::describe_posterior 
Here is a summary of multiple pairwise comparison tests supported in ggbetweenstats
Type  Equal variance?  Test  pvalue adjustment?  Function 

Parametric  No  GamesHowell test  Yes  stats::pairwise.t.test 
Parametric  Yes  Student’s ttest  Yes  PMCMRplus::gamesHowellTest 
Nonparametric  No  Dunn test  Yes  PMCMRplus::kwAllPairsDunnTest 
Robust  No  Yuen’s trimmed means test  Yes  WRS2::lincon 
Bayes Factor  NA 
Student’s ttest  NA 
BayesFactor::ttestBF 
For more, see the ggbetweenstats
vignette: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/ggstatsplot/articles/web_only/ggbetweenstats.html
ggwithinstats
ggbetweenstats
function has an identical twin function ggwithinstats
for repeated measures designs that behaves in the same fashion with a few minor tweaks introduced to properly visualize the repeated measures design. As can be seen from an example below, the only difference between the plot structure is that now the group means are connected by paths to highlight the fact that these data are paired with each other.
# for reproducibility and data
set.seed(123)
library(WRS2)
# plot
ggstatsplot::ggwithinstats(
data = WineTasting,
x = Wine,
y = Taste,
title = "Wine tasting",
caption = "Data source: `WRS2` R package",
ggtheme = ggthemes::theme_fivethirtyeight(),
ggstatsplot.layer = FALSE
)
As with the ggbetweenstats
, this function also has a grouped_
variant that makes repeating the same analysis across a single grouping variable quicker. We will see an example with only repeated measurements
# common setup
set.seed(123)
# plot
ggstatsplot::grouped_ggwithinstats(
data = dplyr::filter(
.data = ggstatsplot::bugs_long,
region %in% c("Europe", "North America"),
condition %in% c("LDLF", "LDHF")
),
x = condition,
y = desire,
xlab = "Condition",
ylab = "Desire to kill an artrhopod",
grouping.var = region,
outlier.tagging = TRUE,
outlier.label = education,
ggtheme = hrbrthemes::theme_ipsum_tw(),
ggstatsplot.layer = FALSE
)
Following (withinsubjects) tests are carried out for each type of analyses
Type  No. of groups  Test 

Parametric  > 2  Oneway repeated measures ANOVA 
Nonparametric  > 2  Friedman rank sum test 
Robust  > 2  Heteroscedastic oneway repeated measures ANOVA for trimmed means 
Bayes Factor  > 2  Oneway repeated measures ANOVA 
Parametric  2  Student’s ttest 
Nonparametric  2  Wilcoxon signedrank test 
Robust  2  Yuen’s test on trimmed means for dependent samples 
Bayes Factor  2  Student’s ttest 
Following effect sizes (and confidence intervals/CI) are available for each type of test
Type  No. of groups  Effect size  CI?  Function 

Parametric  > 2  ,  Yes  effectsize::omega_squared , effectsize::eta_squared 
Nonparametric  > 2  (Kendall’s coefficient of concordance)  Yes  rcompanion::kendallW 
Robust  > 2  No  No  NA 
Bayes Factor  > 2  Yes  performance::r2_bayes 

Parametric  2  Cohen’s d, Hedge’s g  Yes  effectsize::cohens_d , effectsize::hedges_g 
Nonparametric  2  r (computed as )  Yes  rcompanion::wilcoxonR 
Robust  2  (robust standardized difference)  Yes  WRS2::dep.effect 
Bayes Factor  2  Yes  bayestestR::describe_posterior 
Here is a summary of multiple pairwise comparison tests supported in ggwithinstats
Type  Test  pvalue adjustment?  Function 

Parametric  Student’s ttest  Yes  stats::pairwise.t.test 
Nonparametric  DurbinConover test  Yes  PMCMRplus::durbinAllPairsTest 
Robust  Yuen’s trimmed means test  Yes  WRS2::rmmcp 
Bayes Factor  Student’s ttest  NA 
BayesFactor::ttestBF 
For more, see the ggwithinstats
vignette: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/ggstatsplot/articles/web_only/ggwithinstats.html
ggscatterstats
This function creates a scatterplot with marginal distributions overlaid on the axes (from ggExtra::ggMarginal
) and results from statistical tests in the subtitle:
ggstatsplot::ggscatterstats(
data = ggplot2::msleep,
x = sleep_rem,
y = awake,
xlab = "REM sleep (in hours)",
ylab = "Amount of time spent awake (in hours)",
title = "Understanding mammalian sleep"
)
The available marginal distributions are
Number of other arguments can be specified to modify this basic plot
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# plot
ggstatsplot::ggscatterstats(
data = dplyr::filter(.data = ggstatsplot::movies_long, genre == "Action"),
x = budget,
y = rating,
type = "robust", # type of test that needs to be run
xlab = "Movie budget (in million/ US$)", # label for x axis
ylab = "IMDB rating", # label for y axis
label.var = "title", # variable for labeling data points
label.expression = "rating < 5 & budget > 100", # expression that decides which points to label
title = "Movie budget and IMDB rating (action)", # title text for the plot
caption = expression(paste(italic("Note"), ": IMDB stands for Internet Movie DataBase")),
ggtheme = hrbrthemes::theme_ipsum_ps(), # choosing a different theme
ggstatsplot.layer = FALSE, # turn off `ggstatsplot` theme layer
marginal.type = "density", # type of marginal distribution to be displayed
xfill = "pink", # color fill for xaxis marginal distribution
yfill = "#009E73" # color fill for yaxis marginal distribution
)
Additionally, there is also a grouped_
variant of this function that makes it easy to repeat the same operation across a single grouping variable. Also, note that, as opposed to the other functions, this function does not return a ggplot
object and any modification you want to make can be made in advance using ggplot.component
argument (available for all functions, but especially useful for this particular function):
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# plot
ggstatsplot::grouped_ggscatterstats(
data = dplyr::filter(
.data = ggstatsplot::movies_long,
genre %in% c("Action", "Action Comedy", "Action Drama", "Comedy")
),
x = rating,
y = length,
grouping.var = genre, # grouping variable
label.var = title,
label.expression = length > 200,
xfill = "#E69F00",
yfill = "#8b3058",
xlab = "IMDB rating",
title.prefix = "Movie genre",
ggtheme = ggplot2::theme_grey(),
ggplot.component = list(
ggplot2::scale_x_continuous(breaks = seq(2, 9, 1), limits = (c(2, 9)))
),
plotgrid.args = list(nrow = 2),
title.text = "Relationship between movie length by IMDB ratings for different genres"
)
Following tests are carried out for each type of analyses. Additionally, the correlation coefficients (and their confidence intervals) are used as effect sizes
Type  Test  CI?  Function 

Parametric  Pearson’s correlation coefficient  Yes  correlation::correlation 
Nonparametric  Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient  Yes  correlation::correlation 
Robust  Percentage bend correlation coefficient  Yes  correlation::correlation 
Bayes Factor  Pearson’s correlation coefficient  Yes  correlation::correlation 
For more, see the ggscatterstats
vignette: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/ggstatsplot/articles/web_only/ggscatterstats.html
ggcorrmat
ggcorrmat
makes a correlalogram (a matrix of correlation coefficients) with minimal amount of code. Just sticking to the defaults itself produces publicationready correlation matrices. But, for the sake of exploring the available options, let’s change some of the defaults. For example, multiple aestheticsrelated arguments can be modified to change the appearance of the correlation matrix.
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# as a default this function outputs a correlation matrix plot
ggstatsplot::ggcorrmat(
data = ggplot2::msleep,
type = "robust", # correlation method
p.adjust.method = "holm", # pvalue adjustment method for multiple comparisons
cor.vars = c(sleep_rem, awake:bodywt), # a range of variables can be selected
cor.vars.names = c(
"REM sleep", # variable names
"time awake",
"brain weight",
"body weight"
),
matrix.type = "upper", # type of visualization matrix
colors = c("#B2182B", "white", "#4D4D4D"),
title = "Correlalogram for mammals sleep dataset",
subtitle = "sleep units: hours; weight units: kilograms",
caption = "Source: `ggplot2` R package"
)
Two things to note:
If there are NA
s present in the selected variables, the legend will display minimum, median, and maximum number of pairs used for correlation tests.
If cor.vars
are not specified, all numeric variables will be used.
There is also a grouped_
variant of this function that makes it easy to repeat the same operation across a single grouping variable:
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# plot
ggstatsplot::grouped_ggcorrmat(
data = dplyr::filter(
.data = ggstatsplot::movies_long,
genre %in% c("Action", "Action Comedy", "Action Drama", "Comedy")
),
cor.vars = length:votes,
colors = c("#cbac43", "white", "#550000"),
grouping.var = genre, # grouping variable
k = 3L, # number of digits after decimal point
title.prefix = "Movie genre",
plotgrid.args = list(nrow = 2)
)
You can also get a dataframe containing all relevant details from the statistical tests:
# setup
set.seed(123)
# dataframe in long format
ggcorrmat(
data = ggplot2::msleep,
type = "bayes",
output = "dataframe"
)
#> # A tibble: 15 x 13
#> parameter1 parameter2 rho ci_low ci_high pd rope_percentage
#> <chr> <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
#> 1 sleep_total sleep_rem 0.731 0.617 0.810 1 0
#> 2 sleep_total sleep_cycle 0.432 0.678 0.223 0.995 0.0173
#> 3 sleep_total awake 1.00 1.00 1.00 1 0
#> 4 sleep_total brainwt 0.339 0.523 0.156 0.996 0.028
#> 5 sleep_total bodywt 0.300 0.458 0.142 0.997 0.0292
#> 6 sleep_rem sleep_cycle 0.306 0.535 0.0555 0.965 0.091
#> 7 sleep_rem awake 0.734 0.824 0.638 1 0
#> 8 sleep_rem brainwt 0.202 0.410 0.0130 0.927 0.212
#> 9 sleep_rem bodywt 0.315 0.481 0.120 0.994 0.0362
#> 10 sleep_cycle awake 0.441 0.226 0.662 0.995 0.0158
#> 11 sleep_cycle brainwt 0.823 0.720 0.911 1 0
#> 12 sleep_cycle bodywt 0.386 0.145 0.610 0.992 0.0392
#> 13 awake brainwt 0.341 0.154 0.524 0.992 0.0253
#> 14 awake bodywt 0.299 0.139 0.454 0.998 0.0265
#> 15 brainwt bodywt 0.926 0.896 0.957 1 0
#> prior_distribution prior_location prior_scale bf method
#> <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <chr>
#> 1 cauchy 0 0.707 3.00e+ 9 Bayesian Pearson
#> 2 cauchy 0 0.707 8.85e+ 0 Bayesian Pearson
#> 3 cauchy 0 0.707 NA Bayesian Pearson
#> 4 cauchy 0 0.707 7.29e+ 0 Bayesian Pearson
#> 5 cauchy 0 0.707 9.28e+ 0 Bayesian Pearson
#> 6 cauchy 0 0.707 1.42e+ 0 Bayesian Pearson
#> 7 cauchy 0 0.707 3.01e+ 9 Bayesian Pearson
#> 8 cauchy 0 0.707 6.54e 1 Bayesian Pearson
#> 9 cauchy 0 0.707 4.80e+ 0 Bayesian Pearson
#> 10 cauchy 0 0.707 8.85e+ 0 Bayesian Pearson
#> 11 cauchy 0 0.707 3.80e+ 6 Bayesian Pearson
#> 12 cauchy 0 0.707 3.76e+ 0 Bayesian Pearson
#> 13 cauchy 0 0.707 7.29e+ 0 Bayesian Pearson
#> 14 cauchy 0 0.707 9.27e+ 0 Bayesian Pearson
#> 15 cauchy 0 0.707 1.58e+22 Bayesian Pearson
#> nobs
#> <int>
#> 1 61
#> 2 32
#> 3 83
#> 4 56
#> 5 83
#> 6 32
#> 7 61
#> 8 48
#> 9 61
#> 10 32
#> 11 30
#> 12 32
#> 13 56
#> 14 83
#> 15 56
This is same as ggscatterstats
.
For examples and more information, see the ggcorrmat
vignette: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/ggstatsplot/articles/web_only/ggcorrmat.html
ggpiestats
This function creates a pie chart for categorical or nominal variables with results from contingency table analysis (Pearson’s chisquared test for betweensubjects design and McNemar’s chisquared test for withinsubjects design) included in the subtitle of the plot. If only one categorical variable is entered, results from onesample proportion test (i.e., a chisquared goodness of fit test) will be displayed as a subtitle.
To study an interaction between two categorical variables:
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# plot
ggstatsplot::ggpiestats(
data = mtcars,
x = am,
y = cyl,
title = "Dataset: Motor Trend Car Road Tests", # title for the plot
legend.title = "Transmission", # title for the legend
caption = substitute(paste(italic("Source"), ": 1974 Motor Trend US magazine")),
messages = FALSE
)
In case of repeated measures designs, setting paired = TRUE
will produce results from McNemar’s chisquared test
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# plot
ggstatsplot::ggpiestats(
data = data.frame(
"before" = c("Approve", "Approve", "Disapprove", "Disapprove"),
"after" = c("Approve", "Disapprove", "Approve", "Disapprove"),
counts = c(794, 150, 86, 570),
check.names = FALSE
),
x = before,
y = after,
counts = counts,
title = "Survey results before and after the intervention",
label = "both",
paired = TRUE, # withinsubjects design
package = "wesanderson",
palette = "Royal1"
)
Additionally, there is also a grouped_
variant of this function that makes it easy to repeat the same operation across a single grouping variable. Following example is a case where the theoretical question is about proportions for different levels of a single nominal variable:
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# plot
ggstatsplot::grouped_ggpiestats(
data = ggstatsplot::movies_long,
x = genre,
grouping.var = mpaa, # grouping variable
title.prefix = "Movie genre", # prefix for the faceted title
label.repel = TRUE, # repel labels (helpful for overlapping labels)
package = "ggsci", # package from which color palette is to be taken
palette = "default_ucscgb", # choosing a different color palette
title.text = "Composition of MPAA ratings for different genres"
)
Following tests are carried out for each type of analyses
Type of data  Design  Test  Function 

Unpaired  contingency table  Pearson’s test  stats::chisq.test 
Paired  contingency table  McNemar’s test  stats::mcnemar.tests 
Frequency  contingency table  Goodness of fit ( test)  stats::chisq.test 
Following effect sizes (and confidence intervals/CI) are available for each type of test
Test  Effect size  CI?  Function 

Pearson’s test  Cramer’s  Yes  effectsize::cramers_v 
McNemar’s test  Cohen’s  Yes  effectsize::cohens_g 
Goodness of fit  Cramer’s  Yes  effectsize::cramers_v 
For more, see the ggpiestats
vignette: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/ggstatsplot/articles/web_only/ggpiestats.html
ggbarstats
In case you are not a fan of pie charts (for very good reasons), you can alternatively use ggbarstats
function which has a similar syntax
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
library(ggplot2)
# plot
ggstatsplot::ggbarstats(
data = ggstatsplot::movies_long,
x = mpaa,
y = genre,
sampling.plan = "jointMulti",
title = "MPAA Ratings by Genre",
xlab = "movie genre",
legend.title = "MPAA rating",
ggtheme = hrbrthemes::theme_ipsum_pub(),
ggplot.component = list(scale_x_discrete(guide = guide_axis(n.dodge = 2))),
palette = "Set2",
messages = FALSE
)
And, needless to say, there is also a grouped_
variant of this function
# setup
set.seed(123)
# smaller dataset
df <
dplyr::filter(
.data = forcats::gss_cat,
race %in% c("Black", "White"),
relig %in% c("Protestant", "Catholic", "None"),
!partyid %in% c("No answer", "Don't know", "Other party")
)
# plot
ggstatsplot::grouped_ggbarstats(
data = df,
x = relig,
y = partyid,
grouping.var = race,
title.prefix = "Race",
xlab = "Party affiliation",
package = "wesanderson",
palette = "Darjeeling2",
ggtheme = ggthemes::theme_tufte(base_size = 12),
ggstatsplot.layer = FALSE,
title.text = "Race, religion, and political affiliation",
plotgrid.args = list(nrow = 2)
)
This is identical to the ggpiestats
function summary of tests.
gghistostats
To visualize the distribution of a single variable and check if its mean is significantly different from a specified value with a onesample test, gghistostats
can be used.
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# plot
ggstatsplot::gghistostats(
data = iris, # dataframe from which variable is to be taken
x = Sepal.Length, # numeric variable whose distribution is of interest
title = "Distribution of Iris sepal length", # title for the plot
caption = substitute(paste(italic("Source:"), "Ronald Fisher's Iris data set")),
bar.measure = "both",
test.value = 5, # default value is 0
test.value.line = TRUE, # display a vertical line at test value
centrality.parameter = "mean", # which measure of central tendency is to be plotted
centrality.line.args = list(color = "darkred"), # aesthetics for central tendency line
binwidth = 0.10, # binwidth value (experiment)
ggtheme = hrbrthemes::theme_ipsum_tw(), # choosing a different theme
ggstatsplot.layer = FALSE # turn off ggstatsplot theme layer
)
As can be seen from the plot, Bayes Factor can be attached (bf.message = TRUE
) to assess evidence in favor of the null hypothesis.
Additionally, there is also a grouped_
variant of this function that makes it easy to repeat the same operation across a single grouping variable:
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# plot
ggstatsplot::grouped_gghistostats(
data = dplyr::filter(
.data = ggstatsplot::movies_long,
genre %in% c("Action", "Action Comedy", "Action Drama", "Comedy")
),
x = budget,
xlab = "Movies budget (in million US$)",
type = "robust", # use robust location measure
grouping.var = genre, # grouping variable
normal.curve = TRUE, # superimpose a normal distribution curve
normal.curve.args = list(color = "red", size = 1),
title.prefix = "Movie genre",
ggtheme = ggthemes::theme_tufte(),
ggplot.component = list( # modify the defaults from `ggstatsplot` for each plot
ggplot2::scale_x_continuous(breaks = seq(0, 200, 50), limits = (c(0, 200)))
),
plotgrid.args = list(nrow = 2),
title.text = "Movies budgets for different genres"
)
Following tests are carried out for each type of analyses
Type  Test  Function 

Parametric  Onesample Student’s ttest  stats::t.test 
Nonparametric  Onesample Wilcoxon test  stats::wilcox.test 
Robust  Onesample percentile bootstrap  WRS2::onesampb 
Bayes Factor  Onesample Student’s ttest  BayesFactor::ttestBF 
Following effect sizes (and confidence intervals/CI) are available for each type of test
Type  Effect size  CI?  Function 

Parametric  Cohen’s d, Hedge’s g  Yes  effectsize::cohens_d , effectsize::hedges_g 
Nonparametric  r  Yes  rcompanion::wilcoxonOneSampleR 
Robust  robust location measure  Yes  WRS2::onesampb 
Bayes Factor  Yes  bayestestR::describe_posterior 
For more, including information about the variant of this function grouped_gghistostats
, see the gghistostats
vignette: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/ggstatsplot/articles/web_only/gghistostats.html
ggdotplotstats
This function is similar to gghistostats
, but is intended to be used when the numeric variable also has a label.
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# plot
ggdotplotstats(
data = dplyr::filter(.data = gapminder::gapminder, continent == "Asia"),
y = country,
x = lifeExp,
test.value = 55,
test.value.line = TRUE,
centrality.parameter = "median",
centrality.k = 0,
title = "Distribution of life expectancy in Asian continent",
xlab = "Life expectancy",
caption = substitute(
paste(
italic("Source"),
": Gapminder dataset from https://www.gapminder.org/"
)
)
)
As with the rest of the functions in this package, there is also a grouped_
variant of this function to facilitate looping the same operation for all levels of a single grouping variable.
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# plot
ggstatsplot::grouped_ggdotplotstats(
data = dplyr::filter(.data = ggplot2::mpg, cyl %in% c("4", "6")),
x = cty,
y = manufacturer,
xlab = "city miles per gallon",
ylab = "car manufacturer",
type = "nonparametric", # nonparametric test
grouping.var = cyl, # grouping variable
test.value = 15.5,
test.value.line = TRUE,
title.prefix = "cylinder count",
point.args = list(color = "red", size = 5, shape = 13),
title.text = "Fuel economy data"
)
This is identical to summary of tests for gghistostats
.
ggcoefstats
The function ggstatsplot::ggcoefstats
generates dotandwhisker plots for regression models saved in a tidy data frame. The tidy dataframes are prepared using the following packages: broom
, broom.mixed
, and parameters
. Additionally, if available, the model summary indices are also extracted from the following packages: broom
, broom.mixed
, and performance
.
Although the statistical models displayed in the plot may differ based on the class of models being investigated, there are few aspects of the plot that will be invariant across models:
The dotwhisker plot contains a dot representing the estimate and their confidence intervals (95%
is the default). The estimate can either be effect sizes (for tests that depend on the F
statistic) or regression coefficients (for tests with t
and z
statistic), etc. The function will, by default, display a helpful x
axis label that should clear up what estimates are being displayed. The confidence intervals can sometimes be asymmetric if bootstrapping was used.
The caption will always contain diagnostic information, if available, about models that can be useful for model selection: The smaller the Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) values, the “better” the model is.
The output of this function will be a ggplot2
object and, thus, it can be further modified (e.g., change themes, etc.) with ggplot2
functions.
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# model
mod < stats::lm(formula = mpg ~ am * cyl, data = mtcars)
# plot
ggstatsplot::ggcoefstats(mod)
This default plot can be further modified to one’s liking with additional arguments (also, let’s use a different model now):
# for reproducibility
set.seed(123)
# plot
ggstatsplot::ggcoefstats(
x = MASS::rlm(formula = mpg ~ am * cyl, data = mtcars),
point.args = list(color = "red", size = 3, shape = 15),
vline.args = list(size = 1, color = "#CC79A7", linetype = "dotdash"),
stats.label.color = c("#0072B2", "#D55E00", "darkgreen"),
title = "Car performance predicted by transmission & cylinder count",
subtitle = "Source: 1974 Motor Trend US magazine",
ggtheme = hrbrthemes::theme_ipsum_ps(),
ggstatsplot.layer = FALSE
) + # note the order in which the labels are entered
ggplot2::scale_y_discrete(labels = c("transmission", "cylinders", "interaction")) +
ggplot2::labs(x = "regression coefficient", y = NULL)
Most of the regression models that are supported in the underlying packages are also supported by ggcoefstats
. For example
aareg
, anova
, aov
, aovlist
, Arima
, BFBayesFactor
, bayesx
, bayesGARCH
, BBmm
, BBreg
, bcplm
, betamfx
, betaor
, bglmerMod
, bife
, bigglm
, biglm
, blavaan
, bmlm
, blmerMod
, bracl
, brglm
, brglm2
, brmsfit
, brmultinom
, btergm
, cch
, cgam
, cgamm
, cglm
, clm
, clm2
, clmm
, clmm2
, coeftest
, complmrob
, confusionMatrix
, coxme
, coxph
, coxph.penal
, cpglm
, cpglmm
, crch
, crq
, DirichReg
, drc
, emmGrid
, epi.2by2
, ergm
, feis
, felm
, fitdistr
, flexsurvreg
, gam
, Gam
, gamlss
, garch
, geeglm
, glmc
, glmerMod
, glmmTMB
, gls
, glht
, glm
, glmm
, glmmadmb
, glmmPQL
, glmRob
, glmrob
, glmx
, gmm
, HLfit
, hurdle
, ivreg
, iv_robust
, lavaan
, lm
, lm.beta
, lmerMod
, lmerModLmerTest
, lmodel2
, lmRob
, lmrob
, lm_robust
, logitmfx
, logitor
, logitsf
, LORgee
, lqm
, lqmm
, lrm
, manova
, maov
, margins
, mcmc
, mcmc.list
, MCMCglmm
, mclogit
, mmclogit
, mediate
, metafor
, merMod
, merModList
, metaplus
, mixor
, mjoint
, mle2
, mlm
, multinom
, negbin
, negbinmfx
, negbinirr
, nlmerMod
, nlrq
, nlreg
, nls
, orcutt
, orm
, plm
, poissonmfx
, poissonirr
, polr
, ridgelm
, rjags
, rlm
, rlmerMod
, robmixglm
, rq
, rqss
, rrvglm
, scam
, semLm
, semLme
, slm
, speedglm
, speedlm
, stanfit
, stanreg
, survreg
, svyglm
, svyolr
, svyglm
, tobit
, truncreg
, vgam
, vglm
, wbgee
, wblm
, zeroinfl
, etc.
Although not shown here, this function can also be used to carry out both frequentist, robust, and Bayesian randomeffects metaanalysis.
Type  Test  Effect size  95% CI available?  Function 

Parametric  Metaanalysis via randomeffects models  Yes  metafor::metafor 

Robust  Metaanalysis via robust randomeffects models  Yes  metaplus::metaplus 

Bayes  Metaanalysis via robust randomeffects models  Yes  metaBMA::meta_random 
For a more exhaustive account of this function, see the associated vignette https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/ggstatsplot/articles/web_only/ggcoefstats.html
combine_plots
The full power of ggstatsplot
can be leveraged with a functional programming package like purrr
that replaces for
loops with code that is both more succinct and easier to read and, therefore, purrr
should be preferrred 😻. (Another old school option to do this effectively is using the plyr
package.)
In such cases, ggstatsplot
contains a helper function combine_plots
to combine multiple plots, which can be useful for combining a list of plots produced with purrr
. This is a wrapper around cowplot::plot_grid
and lets you combine multiple plots and add a combination of title, caption, and annotation texts with suitable defaults.
For examples (both with plyr
and purrr
), see the associated vignette https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/ggstatsplot/articles/web_only/combine_plots.html
ggstatsplot
statistical details with custom plotsSometimes you may not like the default plots produced by ggstatsplot
. In such cases, you can use other custom plots (from ggplot2
or other plotting packages) and still use ggstatsplot
functions to display results from relevant statistical test.
For example, in the following chunk, we will create plot (ridgeplot) using ggridges
package and use ggstatsplot
function for extracting results.
# loading the needed libraries
set.seed(123)
library(ggridges)
library(ggplot2)
library(ggstatsplot)
# using `ggstatsplot` to get call with statistical results
stats_results <
ggstatsplot::ggbetweenstats(
data = morley,
x = Expt,
y = Speed,
output = "subtitle"
)
# using `ggridges` to create plot
ggplot(morley, aes(x = Speed, y = as.factor(Expt), fill = as.factor(Expt))) +
geom_density_ridges(
jittered_points = TRUE,
quantile_lines = TRUE,
scale = 0.9,
alpha = 0.7,
vline_size = 1,
vline_color = "red",
point_size = 0.4,
point_alpha = 1,
position = position_raincloud(adjust_vlines = TRUE)
) + # adding annotations
labs(
title = "MichelsonMorley experiments",
subtitle = stats_results,
x = "Speed of light",
y = "Experiment number"
) + # remove the legend
theme(legend.position = "none")
As seen from these examples, ggstatsplot
relies on nonstandard evaluation (NSE)  implemented via rlang
 i.e., rather than looking at the values of arguments (x
, y
), it instead looks at their expressions. Therefore, the syntax is simpler and follows the following principles
When a given function depends on variables in a dataframe, data
argument must always be specified.
The $
operator cannot be used to specify variables in a dataframe.
All functions accept both string (x = "var1"
) and symbol (x = var1
) arguments.
These set principles combined with the fact that almost all functions produce publicationready plots that require very few arguments if one finds the aesthetic and statistical defaults satisfying make the syntax much less cognitively demanding and easy to remember/reconstruct.
Most functions share a type
(of test) argument that is helpful to specify the type of statistical analysis:
"p"
(for parametric)"np"
(for nonparametric)"r"
(for robust)"bf"
(for Bayes Factor)All relevant functions in ggstatsplot
have a output
argument which can be used to not only return plots (which is the default), but also to return a subtitle
or caption
, which are objects of type call
and can be used to display statistical details in conjunction with a custom plot and at a custom location in the plot.
Additionally, all functions share the ggtheme
and palette
arguments that can be used to specify your favorite ggplot
theme and color palette.
ggstatsverse
: Components of ggstatsplot
To make the maintenance and development of ggstatsplot
more manageable, it is being broken into smaller pieces. Currently, the package internally relies on the following packages that manage different aspects of statistical analyses:
statsExpressions
The statsExpressions
package forms the statistical backend that processes data and creates expressions containing results from statistical tests and are by default displayed in as plot subtitle.
For more exhaustive documentation for this package, see: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/statsExpressions/
tidyBF
The tidyBF
package forms the backend that processes data and creates expressions containing results from Bayes Factor tests and are by default displayed in as plot caption.
For more exhaustive documentation for this package, see: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/tidyBF/
pairwiseComparisons
The pairwiseComparisons
package forms the pairwise comparison backend for creating results that are used to display post hoc multiple comparisons displayed in ggbetweenstats
and ggwithinstats
functions.
For more exhaustive documentation for this package, see: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/pairwiseComparisons/
ipmisc
The ipmisc
package contains some of the data wrangling/cleaning functions and a few other miscellaneous functions.
For more exhaustive documentation for this package, see: https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/ipmisc/
In case you use the GUI software jamovi
, you can install a module called jjstatsplot
, which is a wrapper around ggstatsplot
.
I would like to thank all the contributors to ggstatsplot
who pointed out bugs or requested features I hadn’t considered. I would especially like to thank other package developers (especially Daniel Lüdecke, Dominique Makowski, Mattan S. BenShachar, Patrick Mair, Salvatore Mangiafico, etc.) who have patiently and diligently answered my relentless number of questions and added feature requests I wanted. I also want to thank Chuck Powell for his initial contributions to the package.
The hexsticker was generously designed by Sarah Otterstetter (Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin). This package has also benefited from the larger rstats
community on Twitter and StackOverflow.
Thanks are also due to my postdoc advisers (Mina Cikara and Fiery Cushman at Harvard University; Iyad Rahwan at Max Planck Institute for Human Development) who patiently supported me spending hundreds of hours working on this package rather than what I was paid to do. 😄
As the code stands right now, here is the code coverage for all primary functions involved: https://codecov.io/gh/IndrajeetPatil/ggstatsplot/tree/master/R
I’m happy to receive bug reports, suggestions, questions, and (most of all) contributions to fix problems and add features. I personally prefer using the GitHub
issues system over trying to reach out to me in other ways (personal email, Twitter, etc.). Pull Requests for contributions are encouraged.
Here are some simple ways in which you can contribute (in the increasing order of commitment):
Read and correct any inconsistencies in the documentation
Raise issues about bugs or wanted features
Review code
Add new functionality (in the form of new plotting functions or helpers for preparing subtitles)
Please note that this project is released with a Contributor Code of Conduct. By participating in this project you agree to abide by its terms.
For reproducibility purposes, the details about the session information in which this document was rendered, see https://indrajeetpatil.github.io/ggstatsplot/articles/web_only/session_info.html