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This package is built on the new classes haven_labelled and haven_labelled_spss introduced by haven package to handle labelled variables imported from SPSS, Stata and SAS. The labelled package propose several functions to manipulate such vectors and their metadata: variable labels, value labels and user-defined missing values.


From CRAN:


Development version from GitHub:



Read the vignette at


labelled cheatsheet

Some general guidelines

  1. Functions are intended to support labelled metadata structures only. However, to_labelled() method allows to convert metadata from foreign and memisc packages.
  2. Functions should, by default, modify metadata only (i.e. classes and attributes), except if explicitly expressed by the user.